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A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has refuted a recent theory that modern humans lived in Asia prior to the great volcanic eruption in Sumatra 74,000 years ago.
The volcanic eruption was the largest eruption to have taken place in the last 2 million years, covering India, Pakistan and the Gulf region in a blanket of ash up to 5 metres deep and causing a prolonged world-wide nuclear winter and wiping out any life in its path. It is the most accurately dated, dramatic event to have taken place before the last ice age and it is therefore extremely useful to archaeologists as a time datum for the whole of southern Asia.
Back in 2007, a team of archaeologists in India believed they had found evidence that modern humans were there prior to the eruption and as early as 120,000 years ago. This was based primarily on the discovery of stone tools below a layer of ash.
However, Professor Martin Richards, Head of the Archaeogenetics Research Group at the University of Huddersfield, along with colleagues from the Universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh, conducted research in which they examined mitochondrial DNA evidence from India which had been previously unavailable. By using the mitochondrial DNA of today’s populations and working backwards, as well as drawing upon other evidence, the team was able to make much more exact estimates for the arrival of modern humans in India.
The results of the study indicate that modern humans dispersed from Africa and settled in India no earlier than 60,000 years ago – after the volcanic eruption. "We also argue that close archaeological similarities between African and Indian stone-tool technologies after 70,000 years ago, as well as features such as beads and engravings, suggest that the slightly later Indian material had an African source," states Professor Richards, who went on to clarify that the stone tools could well have belonged to Neanderthals and not modern humans.
Earthquake Facts & Earthquake Fantasy
An earthquake is the ground shaking caused by a sudden slip on a fault. Stresses in the earth's outer layer push the sides of the fault together. Stress builds up and the rocks slip suddenly, releasing energy in waves that travel through the earth's crust and cause the shaking that we feel during an earthquake.
Faults are caused by the tectonic plates grinding and scraping against each other as they continuously and slowly move. In California, for example, there are two plates - the Pacific Plate (which extends from western California to Japan, including much of the Pacific Ocean floor) and the North American Plate (which is most of the North American continent and parts of the Atlantic Ocean). The Pacific Plate moves northwestward past the North American Plate along the San Andreas Fault at a rate of about two inches per year.
Parts of the San Andreas Fault system adapt to this movement by constant "creep" resulting in many tiny shocks and a few moderate earth tremors. In other parts, strain can build up for hundreds of years, producing great earthquakes when it finally releases. Large and small earthquakes can also occur on faults not previously recognized recent earthquakes in Alabama and Virginia are good examples.
FICTION: “Mega Quakes” can really happen.
The magnitude of an earthquake is related to the area of the fault on which it occurs - the larger the fault area, the larger the earthquake. The San Andreas Fault is 800 miles long and only about 10-12 miles deep, so that earthquakes larger than magnitude 8.3 are extremely unlikely.
The largest earthquake ever recorded by seismic instruments anywhere on the earth was a magnitude 9.5 earthquake in Chile on May 22, 1960. That earthquake occurred on a fault that is almost 1,000 miles long and 150 miles wide, dipping into the earth at a shallow angle. The magnitude scale is open-ended, meaning that scientists have not put a limit on how large an earthquake could be, but there is a limit just from the size of the earth. A magnitude 12 earthquake would require a fault larger than the earth itself.
Volcanic arcs and oceanic trenches partly encircling the Pacific Basin form the so-called Ring of Fire, a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The trenches are shown in blue-green. The volcanic island arcs, although not labelled, are parallel to, and always landward of, the trenches. For example, the island arc associated with the Aleutian Trench is represented by the long chain of volcanoes that make up the Aleutian Islands. (Public domain.)
FICTION: Earthquakes only occur on the West Coast in the United States.
Earthquakes can strike any location at any time. But history shows they occur in the same general patterns over time, principally in three large zones of the earth. The world's greatest earthquake zone, the circum-Pacific seismic belt, is found along the rim of the Pacific Ocean, where about 81 percent of the world's largest earthquakes occur. That belt extends from Chile, northward along the South American coast through Central America, Mexico, the West Coast of the United States, the southern part of Alaska, through the Aleutian Islands to Japan, the Philippine Islands, New Guinea, the island groups of the Southwest Pacific, and to New Zealand.
The second important belt, the Alpide, extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. This belt accounts for about 17 percent of the world's largest earthquakes, including some of the most destructive.
The third prominent belt follows the submerged mid-Atlantic ridge. The remaining shocks are scattered in various areas of the world. Earthquakes in these prominent seismic zones are taken for granted, but damaging shocks occur occasionally outside these areas. Examples in the United States are New Madrid, Missouri, and Charleston, South Carolina. Many decades to centuries, however, usually elapse between such destructive shocks.
FICTION: The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was the deadliest ever.
Though well known, the magnitude 7.8 San Francisco earthquake and ensuing fire killed 3,000 and razed large sections of the city. It was the most deadly in U.S. history, but that doesn’t make it the worst the world has seen, by far. The deadliest earthquake in recorded history struck Shensi province in China in 1556, killing about 830,000 people. The 1976 magnitude 7.8 earthquake which struck Tangshan, China killed somewhere between 250,000 and 800,000 people. In 2003, the magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Bam, Iran killed more than 40,000 people.
The earthquake in Chile on May 22, 1960, is the strongest to be recorded in the world with magnitude 9.5, and killed more than 4,000. For the record, the largest U.S. earthquake occurred on March 28, 1964, in Alaska. It was a magnitude 9.2 quake and took 131 lives.
PARTIALLY FACT: California has the most earthquakes in the United States.
Alaska registers the most earthquakes in a given year, with California placing second, until 2014 when a sudden increase in seismicity in Oklahoma pushed it well past California as the second most active in terms of magnitude (M) 3.0 and greater earthquakes. In 2014 there were 585 M3 and greater earthquakes in Oklahoma and about 200 in California. As of April 2015 Oklahoma (260 events) is still well ahead of California (29 events).
California, however, has the most damaging earthquakes, including a M6.0 earthquake near Napa in August 2014, because of its greater population and extensive infrastructure. Most of Alaska’s large earthquakes occur in remote locations such as along the Aleutian Island chain. Florida and North Dakota have the fewest earthquakes each year.
FACT: Earthquakes can occur near the surface or deep below the surface.
Earthquakes occur in the crust or upper mantle, from the earth’s surface to about 400 miles below the surface. But the very deepest earthquakes only occur at subduction zones where cold crustal rock is being pushed deep into the earth. In California, earthquakes are almost all in the top 15 miles of the crust, except in northern California along the Cascadia Subduction Zone, which extends into Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia.
Seismologists use earthquakes to study the interior of the earth and to pinpoint faults and geologic structures such as the core-mantle boundary, subduction zones, and the subsurface extent of the San Andreas Fault. Using earthquakes and waves from earthquakes, scientist can see all of the earth’s interior.
FICTION: The ground can open up during an earthquake.
A popular cinematic and literary device is a fault that opens during an earthquake to swallow up an inconvenient character. But unfortunately for principled writers, gaping faults exist only in movies and novels. The ground on the two sides of the fault slide past each other, they do not pull apart. If the fault could open, there would be no friction. Without friction, there would be no earthquake. Shallow crevasses can form during earthquake induced landslides, lateral spreads, or other types of ground failures. Faults, however, do not gape open during an earthquake.
FICTION: California will eventually fall into the ocean.
The ocean is not a great hole into which California can fall, but it is itself land at a somewhat lower elevation with water above it. It’s absolutely impossible that California will be swept out to sea. Instead, southwestern California is moving horizontally northward towards Alaska as it slides past central and eastern California. The dividing point is the San Andreas fault system, which extends from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north. This 800 mile long fault is the boundary between the Pacific Plate and North American Plate. The Pacific Plate is moving to the northwest with respect to the North American Plate at approximately 46 millimeters (two inches) per year (the rate your fingernails grow). At this rate, Los Angeles and San Francisco will one day (about 15 million years from now) be next-door neighbors, and in an additional 70 million years, Los Angeles residents will find themselves with an Alaska zip code!
FICTION: An earthquake on the San Andreas fault can cause a large tsunami.
The San Andreas fault cannot create a big tsunami like the ones that happened in Sumatra in 2004 or Japan in 2011. Those earthquakes happened on subduction zone faults, on which fault slip caused vertical uplift of the sea floor. While a part of the San Andreas fault near and north of San Francisco is offshore, the motion is mostly horizontal, so it will not cause large vertical motions of the ocean floor that would generate a tsunami. Earthquakes on other faults offshore California as well as underwater landslides triggered by strong shaking can create local tsunamis, some of which may be locally damaging.
PARTIALLY FACT: An “Aftershock” can be greater than the initial earthquake.
“Foreshock”, “mainshock”, and “aftershock” are relative terms, all of which describe earthquakes. Aftershocks are smaller earthquakes that occur in the same general area during the days to years following a larger event or “mainshock”. They mostly occur within 1-2 fault lengths of the mainshock. For the largest earthquakes, this is a long distance it is thought that the 1906 San Francisco earthquake triggered events in southern California, western Nevada, southern central Oregon, and western Arizona, all within 2 days of the mainshock.
As a general rule, aftershocks represent readjustments in the vicinity of a fault that slipped at the time of the mainshock. The frequency of these aftershocks decreases with time. If an aftershock is larger than the first earthquake then we call it the mainshock and the previous earthquakes in a sequence become foreshocks. About 5% to 10% of earthquakes in California are followed by a larger one within a week and then are considered a foreshock.
It is possible to have two earthquakes of about the same size in a sequence. There is a 5% chance of having the two largest earthquakes in a sequence be within 0.2 units of magnitude, during the first week of a sequence. Given that very large earthquakes are rare to begin with, it is not surprising that we have not yet observed two very large earthquakes so close together in time in California.
NOT LIKELY: Two major earthquakes occurred on the same day, so they must be related.
Often, people wonder if an earthquake in Alaska may have triggered an earthquake in California or if an earthquake in Chile is related to an earthquake that occurred a week later in Mexico. Over long distances, the answer is no. Even the Earth's rocky crust is not rigid enough to transfer stress efficiently over thousands of miles. There is evidence to suggest that earthquakes in one area can trigger seismic activity within a few hundred miles, including aftershocks clustered near the main shock. There is also evidence that some major earthquakes manage to trigger seismicity over much greater distances (thousands of miles), but these triggered quakes are small and very short lived.
PARTIALLY FACT: People can cause earthquakes.
Earthquakes induced by human activity have been documented in the United States, Japan, and Canada. The cause was injection of fluids into deep wells for waste disposal and secondary recovery of oil, and the filling of large reservoirs for water supplies. Most of these earthquakes were minor. Deep mining can cause small to moderate quakes and nuclear testing has caused small earthquakes in the immediate area surrounding the test site, but other human activities have not been shown to trigger subsequent earthquakes.
Within the central and eastern United States, the number of earthquakes has increased dramatically over the past few years. Between the years 1973-2008, there was an average of 21 earthquakes of magnitude three and larger in the central and eastern United States. This rate jumped to an average of 99 M3+ earthquakes per year in 2009?2013, and the rate continues to rise. In 2014, alone, there were 659 M3 and larger earthquakes . Most of these earthquakes are in the magnitude 3?4 range, large enough to have been felt by many people, yet small enough to rarely cause damage. There were reports of damage from some of the larger events, including the M5.6 Prague, Oklahoma earthquake and the M5.3 Trinidad, Colorado earthquake.
The increase in seismicity has been found to coincide with the injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells in several locations, including Colorado, Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Ohio. Much of this wastewater is a byproduct of oil and gas production and is routinely disposed of by injection into wells specifically designed and approved for this purpose. Hydraulic fracturing, commonly known as “fracking”, does not appear to be linked to the increased rate of magnitude 3 and larger earthquakes.
FICTION: People can stop earthquakes.
We cannot prevent earthquakes from happening (or stop them once they’ve started). However, we can significantly mitigate their effects by characterizing the hazard (e.g., identifying earthquake faults, unconsolidated sediment likely to amplify earthquake waves, and unstable land prone to sliding or liquefying during strong shaking), building safer structures, and preparing in advance by taking preventative measures and knowing how to respond.
There are many things being done now by the USGS and other agencies to protect people and property in the United States in the event of a major earthquake. These include Earthquake Early Warning, Earthquake Rupture Forecasts and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments.
FICTION: Nuclear explosions can start or stop earthquakes.
Scientists agree that even large nuclear explosions have little effect on seismicity outside the area of the blast itself. The largest underground thermonuclear tests conducted by the United States were detonated in Amchitka at the western end of the Aleutian Islands, and the largest of these was the 5 megaton test code-named Cannikin that occurred on November 6, 1971 that did not trigger any earthquakes in the seismically active Aleutian Islands.
On January 19, 1968, a thermonuclear test, code-named Faultless, took place in central Nevada. The code-name turned out to be a poor choice because a fresh fault rupture some 4,000 feet long was produced. Seismograph records showed that the seismic waves produced by the fault movement were much less energetic than those produced directly by the nuclear explosion. Locally, there were some minor earthquakes surrounding the blasts that released small amounts of energy. Scientists looked at the rate of earthquake occurrence in northern California, not far from the test site, at the times of the tests and found nothing to connect the testing with earthquakes in the area.
FICTION: You can prevent large earthquakes by making lots of small ones, or by “lubricating” the fault with water.
Seismologists have observed that for every magnitude 6 earthquake there are about 10 of magnitude 5, 100 of magnitude 4, 1,000 of magnitude 3, and so forth as the events get smaller and smaller. This sounds like a lot of small earthquakes, but there are never enough small ones to eliminate the occasional large event. It would take 32 magnitude 5's, 1000 magnitude 4's, OR 32,000 magnitude 3's to equal the energy of one magnitude 6 event. So, even though we always record many more small events than large ones, there are far too few to eliminate the need for the occasional large earthquake.
As for “lubricating” faults with water or some other substance, if anything, this would have the opposite effect. Injecting high-pressure fluids deep into the ground is known to be able to trigger earthquakes—to cause them to occur sooner than would have been the case without the injection. This would be a dangerous pursuit in any populated area, as one might trigger a damaging earthquake.
2014 U.S. seismic hazard map showing the earthquake peak ground acceleration (PGA) that has a 2% chance of being exceeded in 50 years. Red indicates the highest hazard, and gray indicates the lowest hazard. (Public domain.)
FICTION: We can predict earthquakes.
There is no scientifically plausible way of predicting the occurrence of a particular earthquake. The USGS can and does make statements about earthquake rates, describing the places most likely to produce earthquakes in the long term. It is important to note that prediction, as people expect it, requires predicting the magnitude, timing, and location of the future earthquake, which is not currently possible. The USGS and other science organizations are working to better understand earthquakes in the hope of eventually being able to predict the size, location and time that an earthquake will happen. The USGS does produce aftershock forecasts that give the probability and expected number of aftershocks in the region following large earthquakes.
FICTION: Animals can predict earthquakes.
Changes in animal behavior cannot be used to predict earthquakes. Even though there have been documented cases of unusual animal behavior prior to earthquakes, a reproducible connection between a specific behavior and the occurrence of an earthquake has not been made. Because of their finely tuned senses, animals can often feel the earthquake at its earliest stages before the humans around it can. This feeds the myth that the animal knew the earthquake was coming. But animals also change their behavior for many reasons, and given that an earthquake can shake millions of people, it is likely that a few of their pets will, by chance, be acting strangely before an earthquake.
MAYBE: Some people can sense that an earthquake is about to happen.
There is no scientific explanation for the symptoms some people claim to have preceding an earthquake, and more often than not there is no earthquake following the symptoms.
FICTION: It’s been raining a lot, or very hot--it must be earthquake weather!
Many people believe that earthquakes are more common in certain kinds of weather. In fact, no correlation with weather has been found. Earthquakes begin many kilometers (miles) below the region affected by surface weather. People tend to notice earthquakes that fit the pattern and forget the ones that don't. Also, every region of the world has a story about earthquake weather, but the type of weather is whatever they had for their most memorable earthquake.
NOT LIKELY: The Golden Gate Bridge, Seattle Space Needle and other buildings will all eventually fall during an earthquake.
Damage in earthquakes depends on the strength of the ground shaking and the ability of a structure to accommodate this shaking. Building codes define the guidelines for how strong structures need to be to perform well in earthquakes and continue to evolve as engineers and scientists better understand earthquakes and how structures respond to ground shaking.
Based on the type of construction and the building code at the time when they were built, we have a pretty good understanding of what buildings are likely to be damaged in future earthquakes. A detailed scientific assessment of the likely damage in a big San Andreas earthquake in southern California (The ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario - A Story That Southern Californians Are Writing) estimated that 300,000 buildings in southern California would be damaged at a moderate level (losing at least 10% the value of the building) as modeled in the M7.8 ShakeOut scenario earthquake. Although this is a large number, it is only 1 out of every 16 buildings in the region. Most buildings will not have significant damage. Moreover, only 1,500 of those buildings will actually collapse. That is less than 1 out of 30,000 buildings in southern California. Widespread collapse of many buildings is not realistic.
FACT: Earthquakes don’t kill people, buildings and their contents do.
The greatest risk in an earthquake is the severity of the shaking it causes to manmade and natural structures and the contents within these that may fail or fall and injure or kill people. There have been large earthquakes with very little damage because they caused little shaking and/or buildings were built to withstand that shaking. In other cases, smaller earthquakes have caused great shaking and/or buildings collapsed that were never designed or built to survive shaking.
Much depends on two variables: geology and engineering. From place to place, there are great differences in the geology at and below the ground surface. Different kinds of geology will do different things in earthquakes. For example, shaking at a site with soft sediments can last 3 times as long as shaking at a stable bedrock site such as one composed of granite.
Local soil conditions also play a role, as certain soils greatly amplify the shaking in an earthquake. Seismic waves travel at different speeds in different types of rocks. Passing from rock to soil, the waves slow down but get bigger. A soft, loose soil will shake more intensely than hard rock at the same distance from the same earthquake. The looser and thicker the soil is, the greater the energy movement will be. Fires are another major risk during earthquakes as gas lines may be damaged and particularly hazardous.
FICTION: During an earthquake you should head for the doorway.
That’s outdated advice. In past earthquakes in unreinforced masonry structures and adobe homes, the door frame may have been the only thing left standing in the aftermath of an earthquake. Hence, it was thought that safety could be found by standing in doorways. In modern homes doorways are no stronger than any other parts of the house and usually have doors that will swing and can injure you.
YOU ARE SAFER PRACTICING THE “DROP, COVER, AND HOLD ON” maneuver under a sturdy piece of furniture like a strong desk or table. If indoors, stay there. Drop to the floor, make yourself small and get under a desk or table or stand in a corner. If outdoors, get into an open area away from trees, buildings, walls and power lines. If in a high-rise building, stay away from windows and outside walls, stay out of elevators, and get under a table. If driving, pull over to the side of the road and stop. Avoid overpasses and power lines. Stay inside your car until the shaking is over. If in a crowded public place, do not rush for the doors. Crouch and cover your head and neck with your hands and arms. You should practice the “DROP, COVER AND HOLD ON” method at work and at home at least twice a year.
FICTION: Everyone will panic during the Big One.
A common belief is that people always panic and run around madly during and after earthquakes, creating more danger for themselves and others. Actually, research shows that people usually take protective actions and help others both during and after the shaking. Most people don't get too shaken up about being shaken up!
FICTION: You can’t plan ahead for an earthquake.
There are plenty of things you can do right now to prepare if you live in an earthquake-prone area.
- Make sure each member of your family knows what to do no matter where they are when earthquakes occur:
- Establish a meeting place where you can all reunite afterward.
- Find out about earthquake plans developed by children's school or day care.
- Remember transportation may be disrupted, so keep some emergency supplies--food, liquids, and comfortable shoes, for example--at work.
- KNOW where your gas, electric and water main shutoffs are and how to turn them off if there is a leak or electrical short. Make sure older members of the family can shut off utilities.
- LOCATE your nearest fire and police stations and emergency medical facility.
- TALK to your neighbors--how could they help you, or you them after an earthquake?
- TAKE Red Cross First Aid and CPR Training Course.
- MAKE your disaster supply kit. Beyond the usual flashlights, batteries and radios, include a first-aid kit work gloves sturdy shoes or boots a week’s supply of any presciption medications you or your family might need credit card and cash personal identifcation extra set of keys matches in a waterproof container map of your area phone numbers of family and other important people (doctors, veterinarians, etc.) copies of insurance policies and other important documents special needs equipment (diapers, baby formula, hearing aid batteries spare eyeglasses, etc.) three gallons of water per person three-day supply of food per person hand tools a portable ABC fire extinguisher sanitation supplies for you and your family entertainment (toys, books, coloring books and crayons, playing cards)
- BOLT bookcases, china cabinets, tall furniture, file cabinets, etc. to wall studs. Brace or anchor heavy electronics and other heavy items. Secure items that might fall. Move heavy or fragile items to lower shelves. Fasten drawers and cabinet doors with latches or locks. Brace overhead light fixtures. Strap your water heater to wall studs and bolt down any gas appliances. Look for other non-structural steps you can take in your home and workplace to reduce your chances for injury and loss.
- ASK AN ENGINEER about the seismic safety of your home and/or business. It’s well known that unreinforced masonry structures can fail quickly during earthquakes. An inspection by a structural engineer now can help you decide if retrofitting will help your property withstand shaking.
FACT: The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting research to better forecast the effects of potentially damaging earthquakes throughout the United States and mitigate their effects.
Basic and applied scientific research is being carried out to predict the types of ground shaking expected from future large earthquakes based upon the probabilities (or likelihoods) of those earthquakes occurring, the physics of the earthquake source, the propagation of seismic waves through the Earth’s crust and local site effects. Together with rupture scenarios for specific faults, these hazard assessments are essential for multiple applications, including:
5. Yellowstone (USA)
This one is going to be controversial, I can already feel it. Some are maybe surprised to find it here while other would argue it should be the number 1 (though most of the latter may have been scared away by previous VC posts on this subject). Either way I hope to show that none of this 2 extremes are very accurate.
First of all, plume or no plume? To me Yellowstone shows the characteristics you would expect from a deep-seated mantle plume. A head that impacted against North America in the youngest flood basalt of our Planet, the 17-16 Ma Columbia River Basalt Group. A plume tail that has created a perfectly obvious trail of calderas as the overlying plate moved over it, including at least 11 supereruptions. It is usually active over one location for a certain period then shifts forth to its next location, like oceanic shield volcano trails but with calderas.
Columbia River Basalts thought to have erupted from the head of Yellowstone’s plume and trail of calderas formed from the tail. From USGS.
Lavas of Yellowstone have a high 3 He isotopic ratio, rocks with this chemistry are thought to originate from the deep mantle. All of this makes the strongest evidence, I believe, for a continental deep-origin hotspot. But… tomography hasn’t found any deep origin for Yellowstone yet. This opens a window for alternate theories to show up regarding how it formed. There are also a lot of theories as to why tomography hasn’t found it, like resolution being too bad, the Farallon Slab messing with the plume, or maybe it is waning and the deeper parts have already dissipated… I personally think that the techniques used to image the mantle are not precise enough to image narrow plume tails, so I will go with Yellowstone being a deep origin hotspot.
Perhaps as a result of its distinctive origin, Yellowstone has an internal structure that is unusual for large caldera systems. Yellowstone has a Lower Crust body with
46,000 km 3 of basalt crystal mush at only 2% melt, then a second Upper Crust body that contains
4,000 km 3 of rhyolite at an estimated 30% melt. This makes Yellowstone strongly bimodal, it produces basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions but not the stuff in between, excluding a very few exceptions. This contrasts with the Central Andes (and other subduction zone calderas) which typically have a very large andesite mush body and produce a more varied suite of magmas including basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite.
Internal plumbing of Yellowstone volcano. From University of Utah.
There is something else that is very distinctive of Yellowstone, apart from the bisons and the bears: there is an abundance of geysers. Here is found the greatest concentration of geysers, mud pots, hot springs and fumaroles on Earth. There are also hydrothermal explosion craters that have ejected rock kilometres away, making them one of the greatest hazards that Yellowstone currently poses. The enormous heat flow (estimated at
6.5 GW) that is being released by the hydrothermal system is too great to come from its shallow magma reservoir, so it is actually thought to originate from deeper convecting basaltic magmas that also result in a high emission of CO2. Instead rhyolite gives the building material for geysers, the silica precipitates that form conduits which then transport heated water to the surface. So the combination of basalts as the heat source plus rhyolite seems to be what gives Yellowstone its famous geysers.
Map showing active hydrothermal areas, hydrothermal explosion craters and the Yellowstone (Lava Creek) Caldera with its two resurgent domes. From USGS.
This caldera is really interesting for study, that’s for sure, but what about its future? Some have argued that as the thick North American Craton moves over the hotspot it will be the end of it, and I guess that could be true. The thick and cold cratons are practically devoid of volcanism. The thing is that regardless what happens when activity shifts eastwards, now at its current location, Yellowstone can, and probably will, supererupt again.
The caldera last collapsed in the 1000 km 3 Lava Creek eruption at 0.6 Ma, but the story doesn’t end there. Lava domes have kept being erupted mostly in 3 pulses: 0.52-0.48, 0.16-0.15 and 0.11-0.07 Ma. The last pulse has involved lava flows erupting along a western ring fault that delineates the Lava Creek eruption caldera. These were HUGE rhyolite eruptions, for example the youngest one, the Pitchstone Plateau flow, had a volume of 70-80 km 3 . It’s so big that the shallow reservoir of Yellowstone seems to fall short in size to explain them. Consider this, even the largest Icelandic fissure eruptions, 1-25 km 3 (like Holuraun or Laki) are only able to reach this size because a caldera collapse takes places that keeps re-pressurizing the magma chamber with each collapse event and keeps the eruption going. Kilauea started to collapse in 2018 when less than 0.1 km 3 of magma had been removed from its summit. Yellowstone did these enormous flows without the help of any caldera collapse. I am not aware of any other silicic volcano having done any flow of similar size, the largest lava flows of the Altiplano-Puna only reach to 1/3 the size of Yellowstone’s most voluminous.
“Young” gigantic rhyolite lava flows at Yellowstone. From USGS.
These large effusive eruptions are another oddity of Yellowstone that hasn’t been given much attention by scientists. I think however the explanation may lie in the basalt once again. If the shallow rhyolitic melt bodies are well connected to deeper bodies of molten basalt that are also very voluminous then these could be backing up the shallow chambers with their pressure and making eruptions bigger. This would be my best guess to an unresolved question.
So summing up, Yellowstone has great volumes of melt, including rhyolite, a long history of supereruptions, a large heat flux and a ring-fault full of lava domes. It is looking as if Yellowstone plans to do another supereruption. Its weak spot is that this volcano likes to sleep, in fact it has been dormant for 70,000 years! And for all we know it could go dormant for another 70,000. Paleo-deformation also reveals that the caldera has been predominantly deflating for the last 15,000 years. That is why Yellowstone is not going to erupt any time soon and it will need a great deal of pressurization and re-melting before it does so.
Castle Geysir. Photograph by Arad Mojtahedi, Wikimedia Commons.
Chinese eyes less intrusive than Five Eyes (US and its puppets) - because China prioritizes trade and reputation while US prioritizes global spying, meddling and military control. The Saudi loving US puppets Duncan Smith, Davis, Paterson, Green, Ellwood and Seely etc. produce baseless "security" arguments for Sinophobic MPs.
U.S. flu this season Feb. 2020: 19 million illnesses, 180,000 hospitalizations, and over 10,000 deaths (China has a third less common flu than US). 2019-nCoV, 6 Feb. 2020 (estim. total death rate 0.1-0.2%, i.e. same as common flu): 28,018 cases (not illnesses) and 563 deaths. Did the eye doctors SARS rant on social media delay response in China? It wasn't SARS but much closer to common flu - but without vaccine. Instead of assisting, US/UK/BBC did the utmost to smear China with it!
Klevius warning to Finland (and the rest of the world): Don't be useful idiots in US' export of militarism! It will create tension and pull fire on you in a conflict. Four balancing power blocs is safer than one or two. Moreover, China will become the world's first true democracy thanks to AI. Don't let Sinophobia blind you. US is going down unless it starts cooperating instead of trying to rule the world. Non 5G iPhone sells well - in US - where there's no true 5G.
BBC's bigoted and hypocritical Pakistan rooted, Saudi raised and Cambridge schooled "muslim" (no veil, no Ramadan fasting, but yes to alcohol etc.) presenter Mishal Husain, like many Saudi/OIC supporters, represents the "security risk" between islam's "core" (OIC sharia) and "periphery" (e.g. "Euro-islam", "cultural islam" etc.).
Peter Klevius suggests cooperation instead of unfounded incl. religious) hate!
Klevius is ashamed over hateful, racist Western Sinophobia - and support of hateful sharia jihad. BBC's sharia supporting (?) muslim Mishal Husain now eagerly sides with Sinophobic extreme right wing politicians who support Saudi islamofascism but demonize China and Chinese (except if critcical of China). Sinophobes would treat China exactly the same if it copied US "democracy".
BBC today (20200129) forgot to tell about China already having isolated the virus for vaccine (and helped Australians to do so). However, BBC repeatedly lied that the death rate is 20%. Common flu and the new corona virus deaths (
2%) are extremely rare outside very vulnerable groups - who don't travel much.
BBC, who otherwise don't hesitate to spit on Trump, has no problem using his advisor when it comes to racist Sinophobia against Huawei. US is blackmailing UK so to hinder China's tech success and the "security issue" is actually US itself.
Niklas Arnberg, Swedish professor in virology: "Considerably higher mortality than ordinary flu." BBC: "Death toll rises as disease spreads from China."
Peter Klevius: Both are faking! Arnberg used overall death numbers although most (all?!) of these deaths have been people who could have died from ordinary flu as well. And do you really think BBC would ever have written similarly about the deadly camel flu from Saudi Arabia?!
Why is BBC spending so much more time on a 2019 flu from China than on the much deadlier 2019 camel flu from Saudi Arabia?!
Why is BBC only talking about Jewish victims - and why is BBC silent about the fact that most "anti-semites" (i.e. anti-Jews) are muslims? Holocaust: 6 million Jews and 11 million "others" were murdered by the German government for various discriminatory practices due to their ethnicity, Atheism, or LGBT+.
Hitler: "All character training must be derived from faith." Himmler: ""We believe in a God Almighty who stands above us he has created the earth, the Fatherland, and he has sent us the Führer. Any human being who does not believe in God should be considered arrogant, megalomaniacal, and stupid." Klevius (the Atheist "other"): That's a description of me by most Americans and muslims. Btw, why are muslim sex predators (compare Koran and sex slaves) from Pakistan called "Asians"?! And why have they been protected while Klevius has been muffled?!
Islam trumps LGBT rights in English schools - and hateful sexist and racist muslim supremacism defending BBC is silent as usual (e.g. about Parkfield Community School 2020).
Klevius: Do you really support US/UK/BBC's disgusting racist Sinophobia madness - and their support and use of anti-Human Rights muslim islamism?! Wikipedia: In the Xinjiang riots Turkic speaking Uyghur muslims shouted/posted "kill the Han (Chinese) and Hui (Chinese speaking muslims)"!
US/UK (NATO) don't accept muslims like Uighur islamists (other than as proxy soldiers) - but demand China to accept them. NATO's Sinophobia is a threat to world peace, environment and prosperity. NATO is all about US monopolizing space for its own militarism and to block China's success? In 1990s Russia was proposed as a member of NATO but is now demonized by US/UK (and BBC) as the "main enemy" together with "the challenge from China" (sic). But NATO members are guilty of offensive wars, occupations, annexations, use of chemical weapons, use of islamist terrorists, foreign interventions, extrajudicial murderings in other countries - and use of similar muslim "re-education" camps as China (why not just criminalize original evil islam?!). NATO (US) threatens the free flow of tech and wealth, and provokes hate and defensive attitudes among Chinese - hence forcing China (world leader in tech) using its financial muscles more for defense (China can't be starved like USSR in 1980s) than environment. Btw, Chinese per capita GDP is 1/3 of US, and total GDP much bigger than US - and faster growing. A fraction of the effort given to demonize "islamophobic" islam criticim, would do wonders to reduce Sinophobic racism against Chinese. And stop using the "Communist threat". China is now a capitalist country similar to Western powers - except technologically much better (and the West copies everything China does in surveillance). Do you really think much would change if China would be fully democratic - except chaos caused by NATO? NATO (US/UK) would be equally Sinophobic. In fact, what is called "democracy" in the West functions quite similarly as the leadership in China. Media propaganda, lying politicians and empty promises combined with silencing the real issues (compare BBC's fake "news") - and therefore a truly democratic vote. Moreover, the only reason capitalist China has a non-democratic leadership for the moment is precisely its justified fear for leaving it vulnerable for what happened in the past when UK and US meddled and attacked with great suffering for the Chinese people. NATO should turn against the real evil, the islamofascist Saudi dictator family.
BBC awards a white man who plays an odd sport few are interested in the title of "sports personality of the year 2019". Why?! Because cricket is a "british" colonial sports and also fits BBC's special interest in "asians" - but couldn't find a "british asian" good enough.
England voted (for the second time) against Merkel’s islam import from Turkey.
Can islam be rehabilitated from its evil origin and deeds - and can unrehabilitated islam be allowed in public and private spheres?
Why is Saudi based and steered OIC's Islamic State of Gambia accusing Aung San Suu Kyi for the consequences of islamofascism OIC's sharia protects - and why isn't the murderous islamofascist war criminal and genocide committing Saudi dictator "prince" accused of anything? And why is BBC's leading muslim extremist propaganda presenter Mishal Husain allowed to "present" an absolutely one-sided pro islamist picture for BBC's compulsory fee paying listeners?
Peter Klevius fact/fake check: Why does Google lie and fake straight up your face?! When searching for 'world's biggest per capita polluters' China comes up with extra big letters despite being one of the least polluting of major economies (47th on a reliable polluters list). Moreover, China is not only the world leader for alternative technologies, but its pollution number also includes the biggest production of products exported and consumed all over the world outside China. Source: EDGAR and incl. all human activities leading to climate relevant emissions, except biomass/biofuel combustion (short-cycle carbon).
US/UK (NATO) don't accept muslims like Uighur islamists (other than as proxy soldiers) - but demand China to accept them. NATO's Sinophobia is a threat to world peace, environment and prosperity.
NATO is all about US monopolizing space for its own militarism and to block China's success? In 1990s Russia was proposed as a member of NATO but is now demonized by US/UK (and BBC) as the "main enemy" together with "the challenge from China" (sic). But NATO members are guilty of offensive wars, occupations, annexations, use of chemical weapons, use of islamist terrorists, foreign interventions, extrajudicial murderings in other countries - and use of similar muslim "re-education" camps as China (why not just criminalize original evil islam?!). NATO (US) threatens the free flow of tech and wealth, and provokes hate and defensive attitudes among Chinese - hence forcing China (world leader in tech) using its financial muscles more for defense (China can't be starved like USSR in 1980s) than environment. Btw, Chinese per capita GDP is 1/3 of US, and total GDP much bigger than US - and faster growing. A fraction of the effort given to demonize "islamophobic" islam criticim, would do wonders to reduce Sinophobic racism against Chinese. And stop using the "Communist threat". China is now a capitalist country similar to Western powers - except technologically much better (and the West copies everything China does in surveillance). Do you really think much would change if China would be fully democratic - except chaos caused by NATO? NATO (US/UK) would be equally Sinophobic. In fact, what is called "democracy" in the West functions quite similarly as the leadership in China. Media propaganda, lying politicians and empty promises combined with silencing the real issues (compare BBC's fake "news") - and therefore a truly democratic vote. Moreover, the only reason capitalist China has a non-democratic leadership for the moment is precisely its justified fear for leaving it vulnerable for what happened in the past when UK and US meddled and attacked with great suffering for the Chinese people. NATO should turn against the real evil, the islamofascist Saudi dictator family.
Is BBC 100% steered by muslims? Not only can you ever hear anything critical about islam and muslims - but all main channels are also occupied by sharia (OIC) supporting (i.e. against basic Human Rights equality) muslims. Nazir Afzal ('Moral maze', news, culture etc.), Mishal Husain (news, culture etc.), Samira Ahmed (news, culture etc.), Razia Iqbal (news, culture etc.). And they all keep cheating the public about it and instead pointing finger to "dumb and hateful xenophobes". Not a word about e.g. Council of Europe's harsh critcism (see below) of muslims biggest sharia organization, the Saudi based and steered OIC. Foreigners isn't the peoblem - sharia islam is!
BBC's muslims and their PC supporters also meddle in UK election by demonizing "islamophobia", i.e. trying to stop critcs of islamofascism.
Muslim child/youth fascism induced by an islam interpretation from family and strengthened by PC media, politicians etc.
The name Indonesia derives from Greek words of Indos ( Ἰνδός ) and nesos ( νῆσος ), meaning "Indian islands".  The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.  In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malay Archipelago".  In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.   However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia they preferred Malay Archipelago (Dutch: Maleische Archipel) the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië the East (de Oost) and Insulinde. 
After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.  Adolf Bastian of the University of Berlin popularized the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara when in 1913, he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau. 
Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago.    Homo sapiens reached the region around 43,000 BCE.  Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan. They arrived in the archipelago around 2,000 BCE and confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions as they spread east.  Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE  allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, from several centuries BCE.  Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history.  
From the seventh century CE, the Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished due to trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism.   Between the eighth and tenth centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia. This period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history. 
The earliest evidence of Islamized populations in the archipelago dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra.  Other parts of the archipelago gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java. 
The first Europeans arrived in the archipelago in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolise the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in the Maluku Islands.  Dutch and British traders followed. In 1602, the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power for almost 200 years. The VOC was dissolved in 1800 following bankruptcy, and the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalised colony. 
For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over the archipelago was tenuous. Dutch forces were engaged continuously in quelling rebellions both on and off Java. The influence of local leaders such as Prince Diponegoro in central Java, Imam Bonjol in central Sumatra, Pattimura in Maluku, and the bloody 30-year war in Aceh weakened the Dutch and tied up the colonial military forces.    Only in the early 20th century did Dutch dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries.    
The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during World War II ended Dutch rule    and encouraged the previously suppressed independence movement.  Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, influential nationalist leaders, proclaimed Indonesian independence and were appointed president and vice-president, respectively.     
The Netherlands attempted to re-establish their rule, and a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949 when the Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence in the face of international pressure.    Despite extraordinary political, social and sectarian divisions, Indonesians, on the whole, found unity in their fight for independence.  
Post-World War II
As president, Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism and maintained power by balancing the opposing forces of the military, political Islam, and the increasingly powerful Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI).  Tensions between the military and the PKI culminated in an attempted coup in 1965. The army, led by Major General Suharto, countered by instigating a violent anti-communist purge that killed between 500,000 and one million people.  The PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed.    Suharto capitalised on Sukarno's weakened position, and following a drawn-out power play with Sukarno, Suharto was appointed president in March 1968. His "New Order" administration,  supported by the United States,    encouraged foreign direct investment,   which was a crucial factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth.
Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis.  It brought out popular discontent with the New Order's corruption and suppression of political opposition and ultimately ended Suharto's presidency.     In 1999, East Timor seceded from Indonesia, following its 1975 invasion by Indonesia  and a 25-year occupation marked by international condemnation of human rights abuses. 
Since 1998, democratic processes have been strengthened by enhancing regional autonomy and instituting the country's first direct presidential election in 2004.  Political, economic and social instability, corruption, and instances of terrorism (the deadliest being the 2002 Bali bombings) remained problems in the 2000s however, the economy has performed strongly in the last 15 years. Although relations among the diverse population are mostly harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain a problem in some areas.  A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005 following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed 130,000 Indonesians. 
Indonesia lies between latitudes 11°S and 6°N, and longitudes 95°E and 141°E. It is the world's largest archipelagic country, extending 5,120 kilometres (3,181 mi) from east to west and 1,760 kilometres (1,094 mi) from north to south.  The country's Coordinating Ministry for Maritime and Investments Affairs says Indonesia has 17,504 islands (with 16,056 registered at the UN)  scattered over both sides of the equator, around 6,000 of which are inhabited.  The largest are Sumatra, Java, Borneo (shared with Brunei and Malaysia), Sulawesi, and New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea).  Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo and Sebatik, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor, and maritime borders with Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Palau, and Australia.
At 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is the largest lake, with an area of 1,145 km2 (442 sq mi). Indonesia's largest rivers are in Kalimantan and New Guinea and include Kapuas, Barito, Mamberamo, Sepik and Mahakam. They serve as communication and transport links between the island's river settlements. 
Indonesia lies along the equator, and its climate tends to be relatively even year-round.  Indonesia has two seasons—a wet season and a dry season—with no extremes of summer or winter.  For most of Indonesia, the dry season falls between May and October, with the wet season between November and April.  Indonesia's climate is almost entirely tropical, dominated by the tropical rainforest climate found in every large island of Indonesia. More cooling climate types do exist in mountainous regions that are 1,300 to 1,500 metres (4,300 to 4,900 feet) above sea level. The oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) prevails in highland areas adjacent to rainforest climates, with reasonably uniform precipitation year-round. In highland areas near the tropical monsoon and tropical savanna climates, the subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb) is prevalent with a more pronounced dry season. [ citation needed ]
Some regions, such as Kalimantan and Sumatra, experience only slight differences in rainfall and temperature between the seasons, whereas others, such as Nusa Tenggara, experience far more pronounced differences with droughts in the dry season and floods in the wet. Rainfall varies across regions, with more in western Sumatra, Java, and the interiors of Kalimantan and Papua, and less in areas closer to Australia, such as Nusa Tenggara, which tend to be dry. The almost uniformly warm waters that constitute 81% of Indonesia's area ensure that land temperatures remain relatively constant. Humidity is quite high, at between 70 and 90%. Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October and from the northwest in November through March. Typhoons and large-scale storms pose little hazard to mariners significant dangers come from swift currents in channels, such as the Lombok and Sape straits. 
Several studies consider Indonesia to be at severe risk from the projected effects of climate change.  These include unreduced emissions resulting in an average temperature rise of around 1 °C (2 °F) by mid-century,   raising the frequency of drought and food shortages (with an impact on precipitation and the patterns of wet and dry seasons, and thus Indonesia's agriculture system  ) as well as numerous diseases and wildfires.  Rising sea levels would also threaten the majority of Indonesia's population who lives in low-lying coastal areas.    Impoverished communities would likely be affected the most by climate change. 
Tectonically, Indonesia is highly unstable, making it a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.  It lies on the Pacific Ring of Fire where the Indo-Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate are pushed under the Eurasian plate, where they melt at about 100 kilometres (62 miles) deep. A string of volcanoes runs through Sumatra, Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara, and then to the Banda Islands of Maluku to northeastern Sulawesi.  Of the 400 volcanoes, around 130 are active.  Between 1972 and 1991, there were 29 volcanic eruptions, mostly on Java.  Volcanic ash has made agricultural conditions unpredictable in some areas.  However, it has also resulted in fertile soils, a factor in historically sustaining high population densities of Java and Bali. 
A massive supervolcano erupted at present-day Lake Toba around 70,000 BCE. It is believed to have caused a global volcanic winter and cooling of the climate and subsequently led to a genetic bottleneck in human evolution, though this is still in debate.  The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora and the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa were among the largest in recorded history. The former caused 92,000 deaths and created an umbrella of volcanic ash that spread and blanketed parts of the archipelago and made much of the Northern Hemisphere without summer in 1816.  The latter produced the loudest sound in recorded history and caused 36,000 deaths due to the eruption itself and the resulting tsunamis, with significant additional effects around the world years after the event.  Recent catastrophic disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake.
Biodiversity and conservation
Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity and is among the 17 megadiverse countries identified by Conservation International. Its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species.  The Sunda Shelf islands (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were once linked to mainland Asia and have a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the Sumatran tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephant, and leopard were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Having been long separated from the continental landmasses, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku have developed their unique flora and fauna.   Papua was part of the Australian landmass and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species. 
Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.  Tropical seas surround Indonesia's 80,000 kilometres (50,000 miles) of coastline. The country has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.  Indonesia is one of Coral Triangle countries with the world's most enormous diversity of coral reef fish, with more than 1,650 species in eastern Indonesia only. 
British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described a dividing line (Wallace Line) between the distribution of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species.  It runs roughly north–south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. Flora and fauna on the west of the line are generally Asian, while east from Lombok, they are increasingly Australian until the tipping point at the Weber Line. In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the area.  The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea. 
Indonesia's large and growing population and rapid industrialisation present serious environmental issues. They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance.  Problems include the destruction of peatlands, large-scale illegal deforestation (causing extensive haze across parts of Southeast Asia), over-exploitation of marine resources, air pollution, garbage management, and reliable water and wastewater services.  These issues contribute to Indonesia's low ranking (number 116 out of 180 countries) in the 2020 Environmental Performance Index. The report also indicates that Indonesia's performance is generally below average in both regional and global context. 
In 2018, forests cover approximately 49.7% of the country's land area,  down from 87% in 1950.  Starting in 1970s, and continuing up to the present day, log production, various plantations and agriculture have been responsible for much of the deforestation in Indonesia.  Most recently, it has been driven by the palm oil industry.  Though it can generate wealth for local communities, it may degrade ecosystems and cause social problems.  This situation makes Indonesia the world's largest forest-based emitter of greenhouse gases.  It also threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identified 140 species of mammals as threatened and 15 as critically endangered, including the Bali myna,  Sumatran orangutan,  and Javan rhinoceros. 
Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. Following the fall of the New Order in 1998, political and governmental structures have undergone sweeping reforms, with four constitutional amendments revamping the executive, legislative and judicial branches.  Chief among them is the delegation of power and authority to various regional entities while remaining a unitary state.  The President of Indonesia is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI), and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms. 
The highest representative body at the national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating and impeaching the president,   and formalising broad outlines of state policy. The MPR comprises two houses the People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), with 575 members, and the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD), with 136.  The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch. Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased its role in national governance,  while the DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management.  
Most civil disputes appear before the State Court (Pengadilan Negeri) appeals are heard before the High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi). The Supreme Court of Indonesia (Mahkamah Agung) is the highest level of the judicial branch and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) that listens to constitutional and political matters, and the Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) that deals with codified Islamic Law (sharia) cases.  Additionally, the Judicial Commission (Komisi Yudisial) monitors the performance of judges. 
Parties and elections
Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system. In all legislative elections since the fall of the New Order, no political party has managed to win an overall majority of seats. The Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), which secured the most votes in the 2019 elections, is the party of the incumbent president, Joko Widodo.  Other notable parties include the Party of the Functional Groups (Golkar), the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra), the Democratic Party, and the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS).
The first general election was held in 1955 to elect members of the DPR and the Constitutional Assembly (Konstituante). The most recent elections in 2019 resulted in nine political parties in the DPR, with a parliamentary threshold of 4% of the national vote.  At the national level, Indonesians did not elect a president until 2004. Since then, the president is elected for a five-year term, as are the party-aligned members of the DPR and the non-partisan DPD.   Beginning with the 2015 local elections, elections for governors and mayors have occurred on the same date. In 2014, the Constitutional Court ruled that legislative and presidential elections would be held simultaneously, starting in 2019. 
Indonesia has several levels of subdivisions. The first level is that of the provinces, with five out of a total of 34 having a special status. Each has a legislature (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah, DPRD) and an elected governor. This number has evolved, with the most recent change being the split of North Kalimantan from East Kalimantan in 2012.  The second level is that of the regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), led by regents (bupati) and mayors (walikota) respectively and a legislature (DPRD Kabupaten/Kota). The third level is that of the districts (kecamatan, distrik in Papua, or kapanewon and kemantren in Yogyakarta), and the fourth is of the villages (either desa, kelurahan, kampung, nagari in West Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh). 
The village is the lowest level of government administration. It is divided into several community groups (rukun warga, RW), which are further divided into neighbourhood groups (rukun tetangga, RT). In Java, the village (desa) is divided into smaller units called dusun or dukuh (hamlets), which are the same as RW. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, regencies and cities have become chief administrative units responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles village or neighbourhood matters through an elected village head (lurah or kepala desa). 
Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. A conservative Islamic territory, Aceh has the right to create some aspects of an independent legal system implementing sharia.  Yogyakarta is the only pre-colonial monarchy legally recognised in Indonesia, with the positions of governor and vice governor being prioritised for descendants of the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Paku Alam, respectively.  Papua and West Papua are the only provinces where the indigenous people have privileges in their local government.  Jakarta is the only city granted a provincial government due to its position as the capital of Indonesia.  
Indonesia maintains 132 diplomatic missions abroad, including 95 embassies.  The country adheres to what it calls a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking a role in regional affairs in proportion to its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among other countries. 
Indonesia was a significant battleground during the Cold War. Numerous attempts by the United States and the Soviet Union,   and the People's Republic of China to some degree,  culminated in the 1965 coup attempt and subsequent upheaval that led to a reorientation of foreign policy.  Quiet alignment with the Western world while maintaining a non-aligned stance has characterised Indonesia's foreign policy since then.  Today, it maintains close relations with its neighbours and is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the East Asia Summit. In common with most of the Muslim world, Indonesia does not have diplomatic relations with Israel and has actively supported Palestine. However, observers have pointed out that Indonesia has ties with Israel, albeit discreetly. 
Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).  Indonesia is a signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and an occasional OPEC member.  During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, Indonesia withdrew from the UN due to the latter's election to the United Nations Security Council, although it returned 18 months later. It marked the first time in UN history that a member state had attempted a withdrawal.  Indonesia has been a humanitarian and development aid recipient since 1966,    and recently, the country established its first overseas aid program in late 2019. 
Indonesia's Armed Forces (TNI) include the Army (TNI–AD), Navy (TNI–AL, which includes Marine Corps), and Air Force (TNI–AU). The army has about 400,000 active-duty personnel. Defence spending in the national budget was 0.7% of GDP in 2018,  with controversial involvement of military-owned commercial interests and foundations.  The Armed Forces were formed during the Indonesian National Revolution when it undertook guerrilla warfare along with informal militia. Since then, territorial lines have formed the basis of all TNI branches' structure, aimed at maintaining domestic stability and deterring foreign threats.  The military has possessed a strong political influence since its founding, which peaked during the New Order. Political reforms in 1998 included the removal of the TNI's formal representation from the legislature. Nevertheless, its political influence remains, albeit at a reduced level. 
Since independence, the country has struggled to maintain unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements.  Some, notably in Aceh and Papua, have led to an armed conflict and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides.   The former was resolved peacefully in 2005,  while the latter continues, amid a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws and a reported decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses since 2004.  Other engagements of the army include the campaign against the Netherlands New Guinea to incorporate the territory into Indonesia, the Konfrontasi to oppose the creation of Malaysia, the mass killings of PKI, and the invasion of East Timor, which remains Indonesia's most massive military operation.  
Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play vital roles.  As the only G20 member state in Southeast Asia,  the country has the largest economy in the region and is classified as a newly industrialised country. Per a 2021 estimate, it is the world's 16th largest economy by nominal GDP and 7th in terms of GDP at PPP, estimated to be US$1.159 trillion and US$3.507 trillion, respectively. Per capita GDP in PPP is US$12,882, while nominal per capita GDP is US$4,256. The debt ratio to GDP is 29.2%.  The services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2018), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%).  Since 2009, it has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 47.7% of the total labour force, followed by agriculture (30.2%) and industry (21.9%). 
Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably.  Historically, it has been weighted heavily towards agriculture, reflecting both its stage of economic development and government policies in the 1950s and 1960s to promote agricultural self-sufficiency.  A gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began in the late 1960s and accelerated in the 1980s as falling oil prices saw the government focus on diversifying away from oil exports and towards manufactured exports.  This development continued throughout the 1980s and into the next decade despite the 1990 oil price shock, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 7.1%. As a result, the official poverty rate fell from 60% to 15%.  Trade barriers reduction from the mid-1980s made the economy more globally integrated. The growth ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis that severely impacted the economy, including a 13.1% real GDP contraction in 1998 and a 78% inflation. The economy reached its low point in mid-1999 with only 0.8% real GDP growth. 
Relatively steady inflation  and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index  have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years. From 2007 to 2019, annual growth has accelerated to between 4% and 6% as a result of improvement in the banking sector and domestic consumption,  helping Indonesia weather the 2008–2009 Great Recession,  and regain in 2011 the investment grade rating it had lost in 1997.  As of 2019 [update] , 9.41% of the population lived below the poverty line, and the official open unemployment rate was 5.28%.  However, in late 2020, Indonesia fell into its first recession in 22 years due to the effects of the global COVID-19 pandemic. 
Indonesia has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber. These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities. In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the primary imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports. China, the United States, Japan, Singapore, India, Malaysia, South Korea and Thailand are Indonesia's principal export markets and import partners. 
Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago, and the distribution of its 250 million people highly concentrated on Java.  All transport modes play a role in the country's transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive. In 2016, the transport sector generated about 5.2% of GDP. 
The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of 542,310 kilometres (336,980 miles) as of 2018 [update] .  Jakarta has the most extended bus rapid transit system globally, boasting 251.2 kilometres (156.1 miles) in 13 corridors and ten cross-corridor routes.  Rickshaws such as bajaj and becak and share taxis such as Angkot and Metromini are a regular sight in the country.
Most railways are in Java, used for freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services (mainly in Jakarta and Yogyakarta–Solo) complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities. In the late 2010s, Jakarta and Palembang were the first cities in Indonesia to have rapid transit systems, with more planned for other cities in the future.  In 2015, the government announced a plan to build a high-speed rail, which would be a first in Southeast Asia. 
Indonesia's largest airport, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, is among the busiest in the Southern Hemisphere, serving 54 million passengers in 2019. Ngurah Rai International Airport and Juanda International Airport are the country's second-and third-busiest airport, respectively. Garuda Indonesia, the country's flag carrier since 1949, is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. Port of Tanjung Priok is the busiest and most advanced Indonesian port,  handling more than 50% of Indonesia's trans-shipment cargo traffic.
In 2017, Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with 4,200 terawatt-hours (14.2 quadrillion British thermal units), and the 15th largest energy consumer, with 2,100 terawatt-hours (7.1 quadrillion British thermal units).  The country has substantial energy resources, including 22 billion barrels (3.5 billion cubic metres) of conventional oil and gas reserves (of which about 4 billion barrels are recoverable), 8 billion barrels of oil-equivalent of coal-based methane (CBM) resources, and 28 billion tonnes of recoverable coal.  While reliance on domestic coal and imported oil has increased,  Indonesia has seen progress in renewable energy, with hydropower being the most abundant source. Furthermore, the country has the potential for geothermal, solar, wind, biomass and ocean energy.  Indonesia has set out to achieve 23% use of renewable energy by 2025 and 31% by 2050.  As of 2015 [update] , Indonesia's total national installed power generation capacity stands at 55,528.51 MW. 
The country's largest dam, Jatiluhur, has several purposes, including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture. The earth-fill dam is 105 m (344 ft) high and withholds a reservoir of 3.0 billion m 3 (2.4 million acre⋅ft). It helps to supply water to Jakarta and to irrigate 240,000 ha (590,000 acres) of rice fields  and has an installed capacity of 186.5 MW which feeds into the Java grid managed by the State Electricity Company (Perusahaan Listrik Negara, PLN).
Science and technology
Indonesia's expenditure on science and technology is relatively low, at less than 0.1% of GDP (2017).  Historical examples of scientific and technological developments include the paddy cultivation technique terasering, which is common in Southeast Asia, and the pinisi boats by the Bugis and Makassar people.  In the 1980s, Indonesian engineer Tjokorda Raka Sukawati invented a road construction technique named Sosrobahu that allows the construction of long stretches of flyovers above existing main roads with minimum traffic disruption. It later became widely used in several countries.  The country is also an active producer of passenger trains and freight wagons with its state-owned company, the Indonesian Railway Industry (INKA), and has exported trains abroad. 
Indonesia has a long history of developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to build and produce aircraft. With its state-owned company, the Indonesian Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Indonesia), Indonesia has provided components for Boeing and Airbus.  The company also collaborated with EADS CASA of Spain to develop the CN-235 that has seen use by several countries.  Former President B. J. Habibie played a vital role in this achievement.  Indonesia has also joined the South Korean programme to manufacture the fifth-generation jet fighter KAI KF-X. 
Indonesia has a space programme and space agency, the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional, LAPAN). In the 1970s, Indonesia became the first developing country to operate a satellite system called Palapa,  a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat Ooredoo. The first satellite, PALAPA A1, was launched on 8 July 1976 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, United States.  As of 2019 [update] , Indonesia has launched 18 satellites for various purposes,  and LAPAN has expressed a desire to put satellites in orbit with native launch vehicles by 2040. 
Tourism contributed around US$19.7 billion to GDP in 2019. In 2018, Indonesia received 15.8 million visitors, a growth of 12.5% from last year, and received an average receipt of US$967.   China, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia.  Since 2011, Wonderful Indonesia has been the slogan of the country's international marketing campaign to promote tourism. 
Nature and culture are prime attractions of Indonesian tourism. The former can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago, and a long stretch of beaches, and the latter complement those with a rich cultural heritage reflecting Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity. Indonesia has a well-preserved natural ecosystem with rain forests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres). Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve. Moreover, Indonesia has one of the world's longest coastlines, measuring 54,716 kilometres (33,999 mi). The ancient Borobudur and Prambanan temples, as well as Toraja and Bali with their traditional festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism. 
Indonesia has nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Komodo National Park and the Sawahlunto Coal Mine and a further 19 in a tentative list that includes Bunaken National Park and Raja Ampat Islands.  Other attractions include the specific points in Indonesian history, such as the colonial heritage of the Dutch East Indies in the old towns of Jakarta and Semarang and the royal palaces of Pagaruyung, Ubud, and Yogyakarta. 
The 2020 census recorded Indonesia's population as 270.2 million, the fourth largest in the world, with a moderately high population growth rate of 1.3%.  Java is the world's most populous island,  where 56% of the country's population lives.  The population density is 141 people per km 2 (365 per sq mi), ranking 88th in the world,  although Java has a population density of 1,067 people per km 2 (2,435 per sq mi). In 1961, the first post-colonial census recorded a total of 97 million people.  It is expected to grow to around 295 million by 2030 and 321 million by 2050.  The country currently possesses a relatively young population, with a median age of 30.2 years (2017 estimate). 
The spread of the population is uneven throughout the archipelago, with a varying habitat and level of development, ranging from the megacity of Jakarta to uncontacted tribes in Papua.  As of 2017, about 54.7% of the population lives in urban areas.  Jakarta is the country's primate city and the second-most populous urban area globally, with over 34 million residents.  About 8 million Indonesians live overseas most settled in Malaysia, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Singapore, the United States, and Australia. 
Ethnic groups and languages
Indonesia is an ethnically diverse country, with around 1,300 distinct native ethnic groups.  Most Indonesians are descended from Austronesian peoples whose languages had origins in Proto-Austronesian, which possibly originated in what is now Taiwan. Another major grouping is the Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia (the Maluku Islands and Western New Guinea).   
The Javanese are the largest ethnic group, constituting 40.2% of the population,  and are politically dominant.  They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of Java and also sizeable numbers in most provinces. The Sundanese, Malay, Batak, Madurese, Minangkabau and Buginese are the next largest groups. [b] A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities. 
The country's official language is Indonesian, a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect, which had been the archipelago's lingua franca for centuries. It was promoted by nationalists in the 1920s and achieved official status under the name Bahasa Indonesia in 1945.  As a result of centuries-long contact with other languages, it is rich in local and foreign influences, including Javanese, Sundanese, Minangkabau, Makassarese, Hindustani, Sanskrit, Tamil, Chinese, Arabic, Dutch, Portuguese and English.    Nearly every Indonesian speaks the language due to its widespread use in education, academics, communications, business, politics, and mass media. Most Indonesians also speak at least one of more than 700 local languages,  often as their first language. Most belong to the Austronesian language family, while over 270 Papuan languages are spoken in eastern Indonesia.  Of these, Javanese is the most widely spoken  and has co-official status in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. 
In 1930, Dutch and other Europeans (Totok), Eurasians, and derivative people like the Indos, numbered 240,000 or 0.4% of the total population.  Historically, they constituted only a tiny fraction of the native population and remain so today. Also, the Dutch language never had a substantial number of speakers or official status despite the Dutch presence for almost 350 years.  The small minorities that can speak it or Dutch-based creole languages fluently are the aforementioned ethnic groups and descendants of Dutch colonisers. This reflected the Dutch colonial empire's primary purpose, which was commercial exchange as opposed to sovereignty over homogeneous landmasses.  Today, there is some degree of fluency by either educated members of the oldest generation or legal professionals,  as specific law codes are still only available in Dutch. 
Despite guaranteeing religious freedom in the constitution,   the government officially recognises only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism   with indigenous religions only partly acknowledged.  With 231 million adherents in 2018, Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority country,   with Sunnis being the majority (99%).  The Shias and Ahmadis, respectively, constitute 1% (1–3 million) and 0.2% (200,000–400,000) of Muslims.   Almost 11% of Indonesians are Christians, while the rest are Hindus, Buddhists, and others. Most Hindus are Balinese,  and most Buddhists are Chinese Indonesians. 
The natives of the Indonesian archipelago originally practised indigenous animism and dynamism, beliefs that are common to Austronesian people.  They worshipped and revered ancestral spirit and believed that supernatural spirits (hyang) might inhabit certain places such as large trees, stones, forests, mountains, or sacred sites.  Examples of Indonesian native belief systems include the Sundanese Sunda Wiwitan, Dayak's Kaharingan, and the Javanese Kejawèn. They have had a significant impact on how other faiths are practised, evidenced by a large proportion of people—such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians—practising a less orthodox, syncretic form of their religion. 
Hindu influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century CE.  The Sundanese Kingdom of Salakanagara in western Java around 130 was the first historically recorded Indianised kingdom in the archipelago.  Buddhism arrived around the 6th century,  and its history in Indonesia is closely related to that of Hinduism, as some empires based on Buddhism had their roots around the same period. The archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful and influential Hindu and Buddhist empires such as Majapahit, Sailendra, Srivijaya, and Mataram. Though no longer a majority, Hinduism and Buddhism remain to have a substantial influence on Indonesian culture.  
Islam was introduced by Sunni traders of the Shafi'i school as well as Sufi traders from the Indian subcontinent and southern Arabia as early as the 8th century CE.   For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences that resulted in a distinct form of Islam (pesantren).   Trade, Islamic missionary activity such as by the Wali Sanga and Chinese explorer Zheng He, and military campaigns by several sultanates helped accelerate the spread of Islam.   By the end of the 16th century, it had supplanted Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion of Java and Sumatra.
Catholicism was brought by Portuguese traders and missionaries such as Jesuit Francis Xavier, who visited and baptised several thousand locals.   Its spread faced difficulty due to the Dutch East India Company policy of banning the religion and the Dutch hostility due to the Eighty Years' War against Catholic Spain's rule. Protestantism is mostly a result of Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the Dutch colonial era.    Although they are the most common branch, there is a multitude of other denominations elsewhere in the country. 
There was a sizeable Jewish presence in the archipelago until 1945, mostly Dutch and some Baghdadi Jews. Since most left after Indonesia proclaimed independence, Judaism was never accorded official status, and only a tiny number of Jews remain today, mostly in Jakarta and Surabaya. 
At the national and local level, Indonesia's political leadership and civil society groups have played a crucial role in interfaith relations, both positively and negatively. The invocation of the first principle of Indonesia's philosophical foundation, Pancasila (the belief in the one and only God), often serves as a reminder of religious tolerance,  though instances of intolerance have occurred. An overwhelming majority of Indonesians consider religion to be essential and an integral part of life.  
Education and health
Education is compulsory for 12 years.  Parents can choose between state-run, non-sectarian schools or private or semi-private religious (usually Islamic) schools, supervised by the ministries of Education and Religion, respectively.  Private international schools that do not follow the national curriculum are also available. The enrolment rate is 93% for primary education, 79% for secondary education, and 36% for tertiary education (2018).  The literacy rate is 96% (2018), and the government spends about 3.6% of GDP (2015) on education.  In 2018, there were more than 4,500 higher educational institutions in Indonesia,  with the top universities (the University of Indonesia, Bandung Institute of Technology and Gadjah Mada University) and most others located in Java. 
Government expenditure on healthcare is about 3.3% of GDP in 2016.  As part of an attempt to achieve universal health care, the government launched the National Health Insurance (Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional, JKN) in 2014.  It includes coverage for a range of services from the public and also private firms that have opted to join the scheme. Despite remarkable improvements in recent decades such as rising life expectancy (from 62.3 years in 1990 to 71.7 years in 2019)  and declining child mortality (from 84 deaths per 1,000 births in 1990 to 25.4 deaths in 2017),  challenges remain, including maternal and child health, low air quality, malnutrition, high rate of smoking, and infectious diseases. 
In the economic sphere, there is a gap in wealth, unemployment rate, and health between densely populated islands and economic centres (such as Sumatra and Java) and sparsely populated, disadvantaged areas (such as Maluku and Papua).   This is created by a situation in which nearly 80% of Indonesia's population lives in the western parts of the archipelago,  and yet growing at a slower pace than the rest of the country.
In the social arena, numerous cases of racism and discrimination, especially against Chinese Indonesians and Papuans, have been well documented throughout Indonesia's history.   Such cases have sometimes led to violent conflicts, most notably the May 1998 riots and the Papua conflict, which has continued since 1962. LGBT people also regularly face challenges. Although LGBT issues have been relatively obscure, the 2010s (especially after 2016) has seen a rapid surge of anti-LGBT rhetoric, putting LGBT Indonesians into a frequent subject of intimidation, discrimination, and even violence.   In addition, Indonesia has been reported to have sizeable numbers of child and forced labours, with the former being prevalent in the palm oil and tobacco industries, while the latter in the fishing industry.  
The cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia. Influences from the Indian subcontinent, mainland China, the Middle East, Europe,   and the Austronesian peoples have historically shaped the cultural, linguistic and religious makeup of the archipelago. As a result, modern-day Indonesia has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society,   with a complex cultural mixture that differs significantly from the original indigenous cultures. Indonesia currently holds eleven items of UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage, including a wayang puppet theatre, kris, batik,  pencak silat, angklung, and the three genres of traditional Balinese dance. 
Art and architecture
Indonesian arts include both age-old art forms developed through centuries and recently developed contemporary art. Despite often displaying local ingenuity, Indonesian arts have absorbed foreign influences—most notably from India, the Arab world, China and Europe, due to contacts and interactions facilitated, and often motivated, by trade.  Painting is an established and developed art in Bali, where its people are famed for their artistry. Their painting tradition started as classical Kamasan or Wayang style visual narrative, derived from visual art discovered on candi bas reliefs in eastern Java. 
There have been numerous discoveries of megalithic sculptures in Indonesia.  Subsequently, tribal art has flourished within the culture of Nias, Batak, Asmat, Dayak and Toraja.   Wood and stone are common materials used as the media for sculpting among these tribes. Between the 8th and 15th centuries, the Javanese civilisation has developed a refined stone sculpting art and architecture influenced by Hindu-Buddhist Dharmic civilisation. The temples of Borobudur and Prambanan are among the most famous examples of the practice. 
As with the arts, Indonesian architecture has absorbed foreign influences that have brought cultural changes and profound effect on building styles and techniques. The most dominant has traditionally been Indian however, Chinese, Arab, and European influences have also been significant. Traditional carpentry, masonry, stone and woodwork techniques and decorations have thrived in vernacular architecture, with numbers of traditional houses' (rumah adat) styles that have been developed. The traditional houses and settlements vary by ethnic groups, and each has a specific custom and history.  Examples include Toraja's Tongkonan, Minangkabau's Rumah Gadang and Rangkiang, Javanese style Pendopo pavilion with Joglo style roof, Dayak's longhouses, various Malay houses, Balinese houses and temples, and also different forms of rice barns (lumbung). [ citation needed ]
Music, dance and clothing
The music of Indonesia predates historical records. Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied by musical instruments in their rituals. Angklung, kacapi suling, gong, gamelan, talempong, kulintang, and sasando are examples of traditional Indonesian instruments. The diverse world of Indonesian music genres results from the musical creativity of its people and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences. These include gambus and qasida from the Middle East,  keroncong from Portugal,  and dangdut—one of Indonesia's most popular music genres—with notable Hindi influence as well as Malay orchestras.  Today, the Indonesian music industry enjoys both nationwide and regional popularity in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei,   due to common culture and intelligible languages between Indonesian and Malay. [ citation needed ]
Indonesian dances have a diverse history, with more than 3,000 original dances. Scholars believe that they had their beginning in rituals and religious worship.  Examples include war dances, a dance of witch doctors, and dance to call for rain or any agricultural rituals such as Hudoq. Indonesian dances derive their influences from the archipelago's prehistoric and tribal, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic periods. Recently, modern dances and urban teen dances have gained popularity due to the influence of Western culture and those of Japan and South Korea to some extent. However, various traditional dances, including those of Java, Bali and Dayak, continue to be a living and dynamic tradition. 
Indonesia has various styles of clothing as a result of its long and rich cultural history. The national costume has its origins in the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions. The Javanese Batik and Kebaya  are arguably Indonesia's most recognised national costume, though they have Sundanese and Balinese origins as well.  Each province has a representation of traditional attire and dress,  such as Ulos of Batak from North Sumatra Songket of Malay and Minangkabau from Sumatra and Ikat of Sasak from Lombok. People wear national and regional costumes during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies, music performances, government and official occasions,  and they vary from traditional to modern attire.
Theatre and cinema
Wayang, the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata.  Other forms of local drama include the Javanese Ludruk and Ketoprak, the Sundanese Sandiwara, Betawi Lenong,   and various Balinese dance drama. They incorporate humour and jest and often involve audiences in their performances.  Some theatre traditions also include music, dancing and silat martial art, such as Randai from Minangkabau people of West Sumatra. It is usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals,   and based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story.  Modern performing art also developed in Indonesia with its distinct style of drama. Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are famous as it often portrays social and political satire of Indonesian society. 
The first film produced in the archipelago was Loetoeng Kasaroeng,  a silent film by Dutch director L. Heuveldorp. The film industry expanded after independence, with six films made in 1949 rising to 58 in 1955. Usmar Ismail, who made significant imprints in the 1950s and 1960s, is generally considered the pioneer of Indonesian films.  The latter part of the Sukarno era saw the use of cinema for nationalistic, anti-Western purposes, and foreign films were subsequently banned, while the New Order utilised a censorship code that aimed to maintain social order.  Production of films peaked during the 1980s, although it declined significantly in the next decade.  Notable films in this period include Pengabdi Setan (1980), Nagabonar (1987), Tjoet Nja' Dhien (1988), Catatan Si Boy (1989), and Warkop's comedy films.
Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry since 1998, where films started addressing previously banned topics, such as religion, race, and love.  Between 2000 and 2005, the number of films released each year steadily increased.  Riri Riza and Mira Lesmana were among the new generation of filmmakers who co-directed Kuldesak (1999), Petualangan Sherina (2000), Ada Apa dengan Cinta? (2002), and Laskar Pelangi (2008). In 2016, Warkop DKI Reborn: Jangkrik Boss Part 1 smashed box office records, becoming the most-watched Indonesian film with 6.8 million tickets sold.  Indonesia has held annual film festivals and awards, including the Indonesian Film Festival (Festival Film Indonesia) held intermittently since 1955. It hands out the Citra Award, the film industry's most prestigious award. From 1973 to 1992, the festival was held annually and then discontinued until its revival in 2004.
Mass media and literature
Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of the New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media.  The television market includes several national commercial networks and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI, which held a monopoly on TV broadcasting from 1962 to 1989. By the early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village, and people can choose from up to 11 channels.  Private radio stations carry news bulletins while foreign broadcasters supply programmes. The number of printed publications has increased significantly since 1998. 
Like other developing countries, Indonesia began developing Internet in the early 1990s. Its first commercial Internet service provider, PT. Indo Internet began operation in Jakarta in 1994.  The country had 171 million Internet users in 2018, with a penetration rate that keeps increasing annually.  Most are between the ages of 15 and 19 and depend primarily on mobile phones for access, outnumbering laptops and computers. 
The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. Many of Indonesia's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions, which help define and preserve their cultural identities.  In written poetry and prose, several traditional forms dominate, mainly syair, pantun, gurindam, hikayat and babad. Examples of these forms include Syair Abdul Muluk, Hikayat Hang Tuah, Sulalatus Salatin, and Babad Tanah Jawi. 
Early modern Indonesian literature originates in the Sumatran tradition.   Literature and poetry flourished during the decades leading up to and after independence. Balai Pustaka, the government bureau for popular literature, was instituted in 1917 to promote the development of indigenous literature. Many scholars consider the 1950s and 1960s to be the Golden Age of Indonesian Literature.  The style and characteristics of modern Indonesian literature vary according to the dynamics of the country's political and social landscape,  most notably the war of independence in the second half of the 1940s and the anti-communist mass killings in the mid-1960s.  Notable literary figures of the modern era include Multatuli, Chairil Anwar, Mohammad Yamin, Merari Siregar, Marah Roesli, Pramoedya Ananta Toer, and Ayu Utami.
Indonesian cuisine is one of the world's most diverse, vibrant, and colourful, full of intense flavour.  Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon indigenous culture and foreign influences such as Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents.  Rice is the leading staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chilli), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. 
Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng, gado-gado, sate, and soto are ubiquitous and considered national dishes. The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in 2014, describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions.  Other popular dishes include rendang, one of the many Padang cuisines along with dendeng and gulai. Another fermented food is oncom, similar in some ways to tempeh but uses a variety of bases (not only soy), created by different fungi, and is prevalent in West Java. 
Sports are generally male-oriented, and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling.  Badminton and football are the most popular sports. Indonesia is among the only five countries that have won the Thomas and Uber Cup, the world team championship of men's and women's badminton. Along with weightlifting, it is the sport that contributes the most to Indonesia's Olympic medal tally. Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league. On the international stage, Indonesia was the first Asian team to participate in the FIFA World Cup in 1938 as the Dutch East Indies.  On a regional level, Indonesia won a bronze medal at the 1958 Asian Games as well as two gold medals at the 1987 and 1991 Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games). Indonesia's first appearance at the AFC Asian Cup was in 1996 and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments, although they never make the knockout phase. 
Other popular sports include boxing and basketball, which has a long history in Indonesia and was part of the first National Games (Pekan Olahraga Nasional, PON) in 1948.  Some famous Indonesian boxers include Ellyas Pical, three times IBF Super flyweight champion Nico Thomas, Muhammad Rachman, and Chris John.  In motorsport, Rio Haryanto became the first Indonesian to compete in Formula One in 2016.  Sepak takraw and karapan sapi (bull racing) in Madura are some examples of Indonesia's traditional sports. In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba. Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and, in 1987, became one of the sporting events in the SEA Games, with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading competitors. In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the top sports powerhouses by winning the SEA Games ten times since 1977,  most recently in 2011. 
Tsunami, Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions Strike Indonesia!
Rescuers battled rough seas Tuesday to reach remote Indonesian islands pounded by a 10-foot tsunami that swept away homes, killing at least 113 people. Scores more were missing and information was only beginning to trickle in from the sparsely populated surfing destination, so casualties were expected to rise.
The fault that ruptured Monday on Sumatra island's coast also caused the 2004 quake and monster Indian Ocean tsunami that killed 230,000 people in a dozen countries.
Though hundreds of disaster officials were unable to get to many of the villages on the Mentawai islands - reachable only by a 12-hour boat ride - they were preparing for the worst.
"We have 200 body bags on the way, just in case," said Mujiharto, who heads the Health Ministry's crisis center, shortly before announcing a five-fold increase in the death toll.
Indonesia, the world's largest archipelago, is prone to earthquakes and volcanic activity due to its location on the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire - a series of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia.
Thousands gather Brooklyn rally show support bills banning transgender athletes from female sports
Thousands gathered in Brooklyn on Sunday afternoon in a march for trans lives as a wave of legislation that targets transgender students in schools, sports, locker rooms, bathrooms, and healthcare appears to be sweeping the country.
Alabama, Arkasnsas, Mississippi, Florida, Montana, Tennessee, Idaho and West Virginia have already passed similar legislation barring students born male from playing on public school teams intended for student athletes born as girls.
The new laws, in states which all have Republican governors, have been criticized by some for ‘limiting the rights of LGBTQ people.’
A protester displays wings while marching on Sunday in the Brooklyn borough of New York City at a transgender rally
‘Trans youth absolutely deserve to play sports just like I did, just like I do,’ said Schuyler Bailar to the crowd
Senna holds a painting during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event at the Brooklyn Museum on Sunday the Brooklyn borough in New York City
People listen to speakers during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event on Sunday afternoon
Parade marshals line up as they prepare to march during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event
Brooklyn Liberation organized a march and rally as an emergency action response to legislation to restrict trans rights across 34 states
SF poses as she holds a sign during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event on Sunday
NPeople listen to speakers during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event at the Brooklyn Museum
According to the Human Rights Campaign, there have been over 250 bills introduced in state legislatures aimed at the LGBTQ community in 2021
People dance as they march during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event on Sunday
Around 2,000 people took part in the even which happened on Sunday afternoon in Brooklyn
The words ‘Trans Proud’ is seen on a person as they march during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event
People walk down a makeshift modeling runway as they take a break from the marching
Several states have passed laws and South Dakota has an executive order restricting transgender athletes from participating in public school sports
‘Trans youth absolutely deserve to play sports just like I did, just like I do,’ said Schuyler Bailar to the New York Times describing himself as a queer Korean American transgender man of color. ‘Trans kids deserve that space.’
Bailar competed college swim team as an openly transgender man and is deeply worried about the flurry of legislation that is being pushed through.
Supporters of the sports bills say they are needed to preserve fairness, asserting that biologically born women and girls would be at a disadvantage against transgender athletes who were born as male but have since transitioned to female.
At the start of June, President Joe Biden, a Democrat, issued a proclamation to mark the start of Pride Month, urging Congress to protect LGBTQ people from discrimination by passing the Equality Act and pointing to a lack of protection of their rights in many states.
The march saw thousands attend as a wave of anti-trans legislation that targets transgender students in school sports appears to be occurring across the U.S.
The laws bars transgender females from playing on public school teams intended for girls
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Idaho, Mississippi, Montana, Tennessee and West Virginia all passed similar laws but many are expected to face court challenges from furious civil rights advocates. Pictured, people walk down a makeshift modeling runway as they take a break from marching
Supporters of the bans say they preserve fairness for biological female athletes. Pictured, people walk down a makeshift modeling runway as they take a break from marching
People listen to speakers during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event at the Brooklyn Museum
Supports of trans youth came out in force on Sunday afternoon in Brooklyn for a march
A person holds a sign with the names of murdered transgender people during the Brooklyn Liberation march
Qween Jean stares out into the crowd as people listen to speakers during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event
The Brooklyn Liberation march took place amid a wave of legislation targeting transgender children and violence that disproportionately affects black trans women
Khoa Ma and Phillip Stapp embrace as they join others at the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event
People dance as they march during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event
Those who attended held up signs and waved flags proudly as they made their voices heard
The march to protect transgender youth for the second year running, began at noon on Sunday outside of the Brooklyn Museum with protesters asked to wear white clothing
Trump, his Republican predecessor, did not officially recognize Pride Month during his four years in office.
The march to protect transgender youth for the second year running, began at noon on Sunday outside of the Brooklyn Museum with protesters asked to wear white clothing and face masks during the demonstration aimed at showing support for transgender and gender nonconforming youth.
‘We are here to claim space,’ said Shéár Avorywho is transgender and nonbinary, said to a cheering crowd. ‘We are here to say that we have a right not just to survive, but to thrive to demand that our movements show up and center us.’
Raquel Willis, a transgender rights activist, joins others in the march. Willis said there were links between the violence, which the American Medical Association has called an epidemic, and the bills being debated and passed across the country
At least 28 transgender or gender nonconforming people have been killed in the United States so far this year, according to the Human Rights Campaign
Organizers estimated thousands of people attended the march this year
Tony Taylur and Caity Arthur embrace as they pose for a photo during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth
Signs are seen on the ground prior to the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event at the Brooklyn Museum
Shear Avory, pictured, called for solidarity and action to support black trans and gender-nonconforming youth at a rally intended specifically to center their voices and concerns
People listen to speakers during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event at the Brooklyn Museum
Raquel Willis, a black transgender activist said she believes there are links between the violence and the various bills being passed in state legislatures across the country.
‘When we talk about the epidemic of violence plaguing Black trans women and brown trans women, that is so tied to the violence and the psychological distress that trans youth are facing,’ Ms. Willis said to The Times.
At least 28 transgender or gender nonconforming people have been killed in the United States so far this year, according to the Human Rights Campaign.
The victims were overwhelmingly black and Hispanic trans women and makes puts 2021 on pace to be one of the worst years on record for anti-trans violence.
A person wears a rainbow flag in their hair during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event
Signs showing support and love for the trans community were everywhere to be seen during the rally
People held up signs during the rally which started and ended in Fort Green
There was a carnival-like atmosphere as people sang and danced in the middle of the street during the demo
Qween Jean speaks during the Brooklyn Liberation’s Protect Trans Youth event at the Brooklyn Museum
Speakers spoke from the steps of the Brooklyn Museum to the gathered crowd below
One protester raises their fist in a show of solidarity with fellow demonstrators at Sunday’s march
Sumatra island in which ocean
At 00:58:53 GMT on Sunday, 26 December 2004, a 9.1 magnitude earthquake struck off the west coast of Sumatra and resulted in one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. Despite the island is mostly known for the terrible impact that the 2005 tsunami had on it, Sumatra has much more to offer to intrepid travellers! Walk along the coast and if you're lucky you might see the fishermen come back with their catch. It is in the Indian Ocean, only 2° North of the equator. Rizal, A. Ningsih, N. (2020).Ocean wave energy potential along the west coast of the Sumatra island, Indonesia. The rest of the 99 outer islands in Pulau Banyak are mostly uninhabited, with a few basic bungalow accommodations scattered throughout. The Mentawai Islands Regency are a chain of about seventy islands and islets approximately 150 kilometres (93 miles) off the western coast of Sumatra in Indonesia.They cover 6,011.35 sq 2 and had a population of 76,173 at the 2010 Census and 85,156 at the 2015 Census the latest official estimate (as at mid 2019) is 92,021. The Question: Soon after the devastating tsunamis in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004 and in Japan on March 11, 2011, many people have asked, "Could such a tsunami happen in the United States?" Altogether, an estimated 230,000 to 260,000 people died in the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. 5 out of 5 stars (30) $ 12.00. Active subduction off the Indian Ocean coast of Sumatra is responsible for both the region’s geography and its earthquakes. Sumatera (Sumatra), located in Indonesia, the island is the sixth largest island in the world, with an area of 443,065.8 km2. and dissipate the incoming high wave energy from the open. Will a tsunami hit? (6:33UTC) today. The most active volcanoes of Sumatra are Marapi and Karinci, followed by Talang and Kawa volcanoes. The island is Sumatra is the world’s sixth largest island with a population of over 50 million. Sumatra is the closest Indonesian island to mainland Asia. Authorities in Indonesia, where a 9.1 magnitude quake sparked the tsunami, weren't able to … North Sumatra is the fourth most-populous province after West Java, East Java and Central Java — it covers an area of 72,981 km2, and at the Census of 2020 it had a population of 14,799,361. Best in Travel 2021. Borneo is the world’s third largest island, covering an area slightly larger than Texas. Tracking System. Distances and Time. A MONSTER 6.6 magnitude earthquake has rocked the Indian Ocean near to the Indonesian island of Sumatra with a tsunami warning initially issued. It was caused by subduction with an epicentre off the west coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Tectonics of Sumatra-Andaman Islands. The local intensity reached IX on the 12-point Mercalli scale in the Sumatran capital of Banda Aceh, a level that causes universal damage and widespread collapse of structures. North Sumatra North Sumatra is a province of Indonesia.It consists of a large northwestern belt of the island of Sumatra and its capital is Medan. 1-165. Moderate mag. Van Keulen (1728, kaart 156) Van Keulen (1728, kaart 157) Van Keulen (1728, kaart 158) The resulting tsunami affected 12 nations around the Indian Ocean, with Indonesia suffering the greatest damage. It's not ideal for bathing and swimming as the wav The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was caused by slippage of about 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) of the boundary between the India and Burma plates off the west coast of northern Sumatra. Because the waves on the beach can reach a height of 6 m. Every year many foreign tourists visit this beach to test their courage to overcome the strong winds from the Indian Ocean. The earthquake was caused by subduction and triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean. To the north is the Malay Peninsula (located on the Asian mainland), separated by the Strait of Malacca. In the 11th century the influence of the Srivijaya Sumatra is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis. Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy, 6, 137-154. Rise early to see the sunrise. small islands along the west coast of Sumatra act as a barrier. The Banyak Island is an archipelago of 98 islands and islets packed in only 25km radius. Sumatra island population is about 42,409,510 inhabitants (2000). The Causation of the Casualties . This island is known as one of the most diverse and most impressive islands in Indonesia. The island of Sumatra, one of Indonesia’s main islands, is directly exposed to the Indian Ocean on its western coast. An international team of scientists has found evidence suggesting the dehydration of minerals deep below the ocean floor influenced the severity of the Sumatra … Indonesia earthquake: Monster 6.7 quake rocks Northern Sumatra – tsunami warning issued A POWERFUL earthquake was recorded in the Indian Ocean this morning, prompting fears it could cause a tsunami. Sea ports of Indonesia. The resulting tsunami is given various names, including the "Boxing Day tsunami". 4.4 earthquake - Indian Ocean, 133 km southwest of Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia, on 31 May 6:16 pm (GMT +6) - This quake was likely an aftershock of the 6.7 quake Indian Ocean, 149 km southwest of Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 14 May 12:33 pm (GMT +6) , which had occurred 2 weeks earlier. In the northeast, the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula, which is an extension of the Eurasian continent. The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami 3 mostly larger than 20 m with the maximum of 30 m. The tsunami heights along the Andaman Sea coast were highly variable they were 5 Tsunami of 2004, caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, is the most devastating tsunami in modern times, affecting 18 countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000 people in a single day, and leaving more than 1.7 million homeless. The hypocentre of the main earthquake was approximately 160 km (100 mi) off the western coast of northern Sumatra, in the Indian Ocean just north of Simeulue island at a depth of 30 km (19 mi) below mean sea level (initially reported as 10 km or 6.2 mi). The quake itself was third-most powerful since 1900, exceeded only by the Great Chilean Earthquake of 1960 (magnitude 9.5), and the 1964 Good Friday Earthquake in Prince William Sound, Alaska (magnitude 9.2) both of those quakes also produced … Sumatra is an Indonesian island still relatively out of the beaten track if compared to neighbouring Java and Bali. The northern section of the Sunda megathrust ruptured over a length of 1,300 km (810 mi). Sumatra’s Indian Ocean west coast has the famous surfing island groups of Simeulue, Nias and Mentawai. Sumatra (n.). Search Lonely Planet. Decay times for the 2004 Sumatra tsunami ranged from about 13 h for islands in the Indian Ocean to 40–45 h for mainland stations in the North Pacific. I can unsubscribe any time using the unsubscribe link at the end of all emails. It is the third largest island in the world, surpassed in size by only Greenland and New Guinea. When the Indian Ocean tsunami struck on Dec. 26, 2004, no one saw the massive waves coming. Will a tsunami hit? The interface between the two plates results in a large fault, termed an interplate thrust or megathrust. The Indian Ocean borders the west, northwest, and southwest coasts of Sumatra, with the island chain of Simeulue, Nias, Mentawai, and Enggano off the western coast. The Southeast Asian islands of Borneo and Sumatra, located on the Equator, are home to some of the world’s most diverse rain forests and Southeast Asia’s last intact forests. The magnitude 9.1 quake ruptured a 900-mile stretch of fault line where the Indian and Australian tectonic plates meet. The Southeast Asian islands of Borneo and Sumatra, located on the Equator, are home to some of the world’s most diverse rain forests and Southeast Asia’s last intact forests. The sudden rupture of a huge fault beneath the Indian Ocean unleashed a devastating tsunami. An earthquake has occurred near Sumatra Island in the Indian Ocean today but it has no tsunami threat to Sri Lanka, specifically the coastal areas of Sri Lanka are declared safe, the Meteorology Department said. Sumatra Sumatra Sumatra, female, CB by Filaretic. Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is in Java not far from the southeast tip of Sumatra. The capital is Medan on the northeastern coast in the Malacca Straits. Its capital is Bandah Aceh. With a magnitude of 9.3 it was the second-largest … M9.1 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Tectonic Setting and Seismicity Map According to USGS scientists, the sea floor near the earthquake was uplifted several meters. The length of the rupture was roughly 800 miles (1,300 kilometers), similar … The second is the Strait of Hormuz, which is the only sea passage connecting the Persian Gulf to the wider Indian Ocean. It is separated in the northeast from the Malay Peninsula by the Strait of Malacca and in the south from Java by the Sunda Strait. The island is often called Percha Island, Andalas, or Suwarnadwipa (Sanskrit word meaning Gold Island). Destinations. India and Sri Lanka are located across the Indian Ocean, northwest of Sumatra. EERI June 2005 Newsletter. Decay times for the 2004 Sumatra tsunami ranged from about 13 h for islands in the Indian Ocean to 40–45 h for mainland stations in the North Pacific. The population is about 8,000 people as of 2020, but most of these live in the main town on Balai Island. Although rare on human timescales, over geologic time earthquakes are frequent in the area. Sabang consists of Weh Island and several smaller islands off the northern tip of Sumatra. 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Tsunami. Including the Aceh territory on Sumatra, the island suffered some 100,000 casualties from the destructive waves. Sumatera (Sumatra), located in Indonesia, the island is the sixth largest island in the world, with an area of 443,065.8 km2. The Location of Sumatra. The Equator divides Sumatra neatly between the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. Sumatra is located south of Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) west of Malaysia and Singapore. Attractions. The shaking was felt throughout southeastern Asia and caused devastation in northern Sumatra and in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands. A number of aftershocks also occurred, some of magnitude 7.1. Search. On December 26, 2004, at 7:59 am local time, an undersea earthquake with a magnitude of 9.1 struck off the coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Penyengat Island. A powerful undersea earthquake that struck off the coast of Sumatra island, Indonesia, set off the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, also known as the Christmas or Boxing Day tsunami, on Sunday morning, Dec. 26, 2004. The Great Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 26, 2004, Tsunami Survey in Sri Lanka [PDF] The Great Sumatra Earthquakes and Indian Ocean Tsunamis of 26 December 2004 and 28 March 2005 Reconnaissance Report, Earthquake Spectra, Vol. Motorcycling Around Sumatra In Indonesia. The earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7 on the richter scale had occurred off west coast of Northern Sumathra around 12:03pm. Highest rated attractions on Tripadvisor, based on traveler reviews. Choose your favorite hotel and enjoy a unique experience with your loved ones. Sumatra, female, CB by Filaretic. 22, no. Tsunami devastates Indian Ocean coast A powerful earthquake off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 26, 2004 sets off a tsunami that wreaks death and … . Where is that? Borneo is the world’s third largest island, covering an area slightly larger than Texas. A powerful magnitude 7.1 earthquake jolted the Indian Ocean off Indonesia's Sumatra island early on Thursday, but there were no immediate reports of damage or casualties and a … I want emails from Lonely Planet with travel and product information, promotions, advertisements, third-party offers, and surveys. The secluded beaches and opulent natural wealth are a great pull for Sumatra Island Tourism. Borneo is situated southeast of the Malay Peninsula in the Greater Sunda Islands group of the Malay Archipelago. Photo by Daz Elson, October 13, 2015. It was caused by a severe earthquake which measured 8.9 on the Richter scale. Though the intensity of shaking did not reach the maximum on the … Container Tracking. Bintan Resorts is the perfect tropical escape for those of you who love to indulge in rejuvenating spa treatments, fresh delicious seafood, and unbeatable beach views. Sumatra island population is about 42,409,510 inhabitants (2000). TIP – The dry season, which runs from May to September, is the best time to visit Sumatra. Sumatra is the world’s 5th largest island and offers everything, from long windy pointbreaks to heavy slabs, a surfer’s heart desires. Sumatra is the world’s sixth largest island. But today Asia's great ape is confined to just two islands, Borneo and Sumatra. The earthquake that generated the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 was an undersea megathrust earthquake that occurred at 7:59 am local time on Sunday, 26 December 2004. (1 of 2) A file photo taken on January 5, 2005 of the devastated district of Banda Aceh in Aceh province located on Indonesia's Sumatra island in … Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands of western Indonesia.It is the largest island that is fully within Indonesian territory, as well as the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km 2 (182,812 mi. As the orang-utan's range has decreased so have its numbers. View map Map. The earthquake (followed by the tsunami) was felt simultaneously in Indonesia, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand, Singapore and the Maldives. Filters • 2. The quake itself was third-most powerful since 1900, exceeded only by the Great Chilean Earthquake of 1960 (magnitude 9.5), and the 1964 Good Friday Earthquake in Prince William Sound, Alaska (magnitude 9.2) both of those quakes also produced … 1. a mountainous island in western Indonesia 2. West of the island is the Indian Ocean. The Causation of the Casualties . The quake created the Indian Ocean's first wave of its kind in more than a century, and it moved the entire island of Sumatra 100 feet. To the east is Borneo, across the Karimata Strait. An island of western Indonesia in the Indian Ocean south of the Malay Peninsula. In AD 150 Claudius Ptolemy wrote his treatise Geographia which greatly influenced later … The province of Aceh is found at the northern tip of Sumatra, bordering on the province of North Sumatra in the south, the Straits of Malacca on the north and east, and the Indian Ocean in the west. Introduction The M w = 9.3 megathrust earthquake of 26 December 2004 off the coast of Sumatra generated a major tsunami that destructively impacted coastal regions in the Indian Ocean. This image antedates by a few years the powerful earthquake (and subsequent tsunami) that struck in the Indian Ocean just off the northern coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra … Some thought Taprobana could have been a phantom island, Madagascar, or the lower peninsula of India however, most geographers believed that the island was either Sumatra or Sri Lanka (Ceylon). ocean, resulting in low SWH and wave ener gies behind these. The earthquake that generated the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 was an undersea megathrust earthquake that occurred at 7:59 am local time on Sunday, 26 December 2004. It was caused by subduction with an epicentre off the west coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Things to do ranked using Tripadvisor data including reviews, ratings, photos, and popularity. In Aceh, the northern province of Sumatra, the United Nations (UN) Field Office reported approximately 131,000 people confirmed dead and 37,000 missing. Enter dates. How many countries did the tsunami hit on December 26 2004? Part of Indonesia, south of West Malaysia in the Indian Ocean. It occurred 18.6 miles (30 kilometers) below the ocean floor along a reverse fault in the Sunda trench where the Indian plate (part of the Indo-Australian plate) subducts beneath the Burma plate (a minor tectonic plate or microplate). Top Islands in Sumatra, Indonesia. Here is the map: Activities. Sumatra, Indonesian island, the second largest (after Borneo) of the Greater Sunda Islands, in the Malay Archipelago. 14 countries. Borneo, island in the extreme southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean. Español: Sumatra o Sumatera es la sexta isla más grande del mundo (séptima si contamos Australia) (aproximadamente 470.000 km²) y es parte de Indonesia. Footage of the 9.1 earthquake of Dec. 26, 2004 off the coast of Northern Sumatra and the ensuing tsunami flooding up the rivers. The beach on Nias Island, East Sumatra, is a beach of hope for international surfers. Its 119 islands cover a territory of 55,392 square kilometers. The islands lie about 10 1/2 miles north of Banda Aceh. There are countless islands in the ocean, lakes, and rivers around the world. Sumatra The Golden Island. An international team of scientists has found evidence suggesting the dehydration of minerals deep below the ocean floor influenced the severity of the Sumatra … An island is a body of land surrounded by water. The island is often called Percha Island, Andalas, or Suwarnadwipa (Sanskrit word meaning Gold Island). Sumatra The Golden Island. The Atlantic Ocean Proper The three island countries in the Atlantic Ocean - United Kingdom, Ireland, and Iceland. (MORE: U.S. Earthquake Reports in the Last 24 Hours) According to local reports, residents of the Mentawai Islands, west of Sumatra, were being evacuated to … Major magnitude 6.7 earthquake - Off West Coast of Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, on Friday, 14 May 2021 at 06:33 (GMT) - information Major magnitude 6.7 earthquake - Indian Ocean, 149 km southwest of Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia, on 14 May 12:33 pm (GMT +6) Hundreds more died last year after powerful earthquakes on the island of Lombok. A MONSTER 6.6 magnitude earthquake has rocked the Indian Ocean near to the Indonesian island of Sumatra with a tsunami warning initially issued. Sea Ports Explorer. Strong mag. To the southeast is Java, separated by the Sunda Strait. Volcano eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and landslides are common headline grabbers for this one of the world's richest ecosystems. A powerful undersea earthquake that struck off the coast of Sumatra island, Indonesia, set off the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, also known as the Christmas or Boxing Day tsunami, on Sunday morning, Dec. 26, 2004. M9.1 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Tectonic Setting and Seismicity Map According to USGS scientists, the sea floor near the earthquake was uplifted several meters. Traveler favorites. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea megathrust earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on Sunday, 26 December 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Van Keulen (1728, kaart 156) Van Keulen (1728, kaart 157) Van Keulen (1728, kaart 158) 5.7 earthquake - Indian Ocean, 183 km southwest of Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia, on 3 May 12:46 am (GMT +7) - On 26th December 2004, the Indian Ocean was hit by tsunamis which are considered to be the most catastrophic in the living memory of the inhabitants of the coastal areas of this ocean. (On 26 December 2004, a magnitude 9.3 earthquake struck off the western coast of Sumatra. The first choke point is the Malacca strait between Malaysia, Singapore and the Indonesian island of Sumatra, which connects Southeast Asia and the western Pacific to the Indian Ocean. A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea)Its capital is Djakarta. In AD 150 Claudius Ptolemy wrote his treatise Geographia which greatly influenced later … All 20 Unique Facts About Sumatra Island by Yoga Adi March 20, 2018 Aside from telling you about the other facts about the city of Jakarta, the mother land and capital city of Indonesia, we also want to tell you about the other facts that hidden in some areas in Indonesia. While bad things can and do happen everywhere in the world, overall, we believe Sumatra is safe – for solo female travellers, families, and travellers of any age. December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami C.V.R.Murty,a… M.EERI, SudhirK.Jain,a… M.EERI, AlpaR.Sheth,b… Arvind Jaiswal,c… and Suresh R. Dasha… The rescue and relief work undertaken in theAndaman and Nicobar islands and in mainland India after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was massive. Some thought Taprobana could have been a phantom island, Madagascar, or the lower peninsula of India however, most geographers believed that the island was either Sumatra or Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Sumatra has a high level of energy consumption and has the second-highest demand for electricity in Indonesia after the island of Java. With spring training coming up soon, we are looking forward to warmer days. We are hiring! The earthquake was caused by the release of stresses accumulated as the Burma tectonic plate overrides the India tectonic plate. On 26 December 2004, a magnitude 9.1 earthquake (3.316 N, 95.854 E, depth 30 km) occurred off the coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Sumatra synonyms, Sumatra pronunciation, Sumatra translation, English dictionary definition of Sumatra. - M 9.0 earthquake,
100 km (60 mi) off W. coast Northern Sumatra, Indonesia - 1200 km section of Earth’s crust shifted
Humans Did Not Live in Asia Before Sumatra Volcanic Eruption 74,000 Years Ago - History
The Museum National is located on the side of Merdeka Square or Lapangan Merdeka and was built in 1862 at that time Dutch colonial administration realized about the great treasure of Indonesian cultural heritages and long history of Indonesia. The biggest surprised for the Western historians was the fact that historical record in Indonesia showing tremendous level of similarities with those in India, India and Asia mainland in general. The elements of India is the most interesting aspect at one side and the fact of Indonesian ethnography. All these facts had invited various experts to study Indonesia in more intensive and extensive effort. In the field of history the archaeologists, paleontologists, epigraphists, linguistic, paleographic and ceramologists have dedicated themselves for the light of Indonesian history, educated local student to understand their culture which had been a great historians such as Prof. Dr. Poerbatjaraka, Prof. Wiryosuparto, Prof Soekarto, Prof. Soekmono, Prof. I.B. Mantra and many others. In the field of Anthropology even more expert were born, although it is much later such as Prof. Koentjaraningrat.
Deeper study on Hindu tradition has brought into light the eat influence of Indian Epic such as Mahabharata and Ramayana in the life of Javanese and Balinese. Everywhere in the region of Indonesia were found the remains of ancient Hindu kingdoms and culture. The remains either in thee form of monuments and artifacts. This fact has encouraged the establishment of national museum as the center for Indonesian cultural study. As a national museum, their collection consist of ethnic map, Indonesian relief map, various ethnic cultural objects from cloths, music, house model, and relics. In the field of history, a big number of collection from ancient Hindu kingdoms, and Chinese ceramic from Hand dynasty.
On April 24, 1778, a group of Dutch intellectuals established a scientific institution under the name Bataviaasch Genotschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, (Batavia Society for Arts and Science). This private body had the aim of promoting research in the field of arts and sciences, especially in history, archaeology, ethnography and physics, and publish the various findings.
One of the founders - JCM Radermacher - donated building and a collection of cultural objects and books, which were of great value to start off a museum and library for the society. Due to the growing collections, General Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles built a new premises on Jalan Majapahit No. 3 at the beginning of the 19th century and named it the Literary Society. In the 1862 the Dutch East Indian government decided to build a new museum that would not only serve as an office but also could be used to house, preserve and display the collections.
The Museum was officially opened in 1868 and became known as Gedung Gajah (Elephant House) or Gedung Arca (House of Statues). It was called Gedung Gajah on account of the bronze elephant statue in the front yard donated by King Chulalongkorn from Thailand in 1871. It was also called Gedung Arca because a great variety of statues from different periods are on display in the house.
On February 29, 1950 the Institution became the Lembaga Kebudayaan Indonesia (Indonesian Culture Council) and on September 17, 1962 it was handed over to the Indonesian government and became the Museum Pusat (Central Museum). By decree of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 092/0/1979 of May 28, 1979 it was renamed the Museum Nasional. The Museum Nasional is not only a centre for research and study into the national and cultural heritage, but also functions as an educative, cultural and recreational information centre.
Currently the Museum Nasional houses collections of 109,342 objects under the categories of prehistory, archaeology, ethnography, numismatics-heraldic, geography and historical relics.
In 1994, the museum started with is expansion project. The new building, constructed in the same architectural style as the old, comprises an arena for theatrical performances and more spaces for exhibitions. The building is scheduled for completion this year.
Couple who converted their car into a ‘home on wheels’ are planning to complete a loop of Australia
A young couple who converted their 1999 Toyota LandCruiser Prado into their dream ‘home on wheels’ are now planning to complete a full loop around Australia.
Bailee and Jesse, 21 and 29, originally from Victoria, have always enjoyed travelling but it wasn’t until living in Noosa that they were inspired to take to the road.
‘All we had was a mattress in our car, a small cooker, our surfboards, no power, no awnings, no internet and we loved it,’ Bailee told Daily Mail Australia.
‘Something about being in nature, away from business, surfing and exploring is incredible.’
Earlier this year, the pair decided to move back to Victoria to begin working on their car-to-home conversion.
Bailee (left) and Jesse (right) Jesse (right) originally from Victoria, have always enjoyed travelling but it wasn’t until living in Noosa that they were inspired to attempt living on the road
BEFORE: The conversion took three months of planning and getting the products to ensure the small space was being used in the best way possible
AFTER: The car is now decked out with a small fridge, cooktop, sink, lights, a bed, drawers, dual battery system, inverter and curtains
The cooktop is hidden in the drawers beneath the bed, which is all made from plywood
The conversion took three months of planning to ensure the small space was being used in the best way possible.
Bailee, a uni student studying social work, said the conversion took only six weeks to complete between April and May 2021 for an approximate cost of $10,850 due to high-quality materials used.
The couple cleaned out the car, removed all rust and unnecessary metal, soundproofed it, sealed all the gaps, measured and cut plywood, sanded and waterproofed the plywood, attached the wood to the car and built drawers.
They also installed a fridge, cooktop, sink, lights, a bed, drawers, dual battery system, inverter and made the curtains themselves. The car doesn’t have any bathroom facilities.
Bailee said the conversion took a total of six weeks to complete between April and May 2021 for an approximate cost of $10,850 due to high-quality materials used
‘We have no time limits on how long we are travelling for but we presume at least one year. We are open to the idea of it taking six months to five years, whatever happens really!’ Bailee said
‘We plan to do a full lap of Australia, sticking as close to the coast as possible and starting with the east coast first,’ Bailee said.
‘We have no time limit on how long we are travelling for but we presume at least one year. We are open to the idea of it taking six months to five years, whatever happens really!’
Bailee said in regards to earning money, the pair will work if necessary but also have a motorcycle apparel business, Morton Custom Motors Apparel, on the side of their full-time commitments.
Bailee said in regards to earning money, the pair will work if necessary but also have a motorcycle apparel business on the side of their full-time commitments
The couple are most excited about visiting Western Australia, South Australia and hidden beaches around the country that few people may know about.
‘We’re super keen to surf as much as possible, do lots of hiking, explore hidden gems and meet like-minded people. We are also excited to have the time to cook delicious creative meals while on the road,’ Bailee said.
Despite completing the fun DIY project in short amount of time, the couple’s plan to start trekking around the country have been put on hold due to Victoria’s fourth Covid-19 lockdown.
‘We decided rather than rushing to cross the borders, we would go home and use the lockdown to improve our build,’ Bailee said.
‘In our first week we have realised that the height of our bed is too high which does not give us enough room to be comfortable for an extended period of time.’
Creating enough room to lay comfortably on the bed will be one small improvement the pair are striving to fix by cutting down the plywood underneath.
What was the allocated costs spent on?
The total conversion cost the couple $10,850
$2600 – Electrical – Enerdrive DCDC, Enerdrive Lithium Battery, Enerdrive Inverter, LED lights, solar panel, solar blanket, fuses & anderson plugs.
$1850 – plywood, waterproofing, Underdog soundproofing, screws, hinges, brackets, heavy duty drawer sliders 3 sets
$1410 – Kings side and back awnings, Dometic Waeco fridge, Companion double burner cooker, Clark rubber deluxe mattress
$790 – wheel rubbish bag, gas bottle & holder, water tank, seat covers, sink, wash rack, table, DIY curtains, first aid kit, jump starter, fake grass, mosquito nets (for windows), back seat organisers, Kings sleeping bag.
$1650 – Kings Roof tradie rack, Rhino box (for the roof), Bulbar, exterior lights
$1850 – New 4WD tyres, a full service of the car, JVC Bluetooth head unit
$700 – surfboard bags & lockable straps, two fans
The side of the car (pictured) also has further storage space for additional supplies and materials
The pair hope they can inspire other Australians to venture out and explore parts of the country they haven’t visited, particularly since overseas remains unreachable due to Covid-19.
‘If you have been thinking about travelling around Australia in a motorhome and you have the ability to, just do it! Now is such a perfect time to explore our own country,’ they said.
Bailee and Jesse, a landscaper, have shared their story with thousands on TikTok and Instagram by posting videos of their car-to-home conversion.
TIPS WHEN COMPLETING A CAR TO HOME CONVERSION:
Build as many compartments as possible, so everything is organised and has a set place in your motorhome
Don’t be afraid to utilise your room space (the pair have a top box with solar panels on it, four surfboards, a water can and gas)
Build your own centre console to utilise the space
Purchase a rear wheel bag for rubbish
Velcro things down to prevent movement whilst driving
Have sections cut out of your mattress to access your storage space if needed
Take your time with the build and be realistic about what will and will not work