George Davis Herron

George Davis Herron


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George Davis Herron was born in 1862. A Congregational Church minister, he became a Christian Socialist and his radical religious views were expressed in his book, A Plea for the Gospel (1892).

In 1893 Herron was appointed as professor of Applied Christianity at Grinnell College. After his resignation in 1899 he joined the American Socialist Party and married Carrie Rand. Together they founded the Rand School of Social Science. During the First World War Herron worked for peace as an emissary of President Woodrow Wilson.

George Davis Herron died in 1925.


Wattles' daughter, Florence A. Wattles, described her father's life in a "Letter" that was published shortly after his death in the New Thought magazine Nautilus, edited by Elizabeth Towne. The Nautilus had previously carried articles by Wattles in almost every issue, and Towne was also his book publisher. Florence Wattles wrote that her father was born in the U.S. in 1860, received little formal education, and found himself excluded from the world of commerce and wealth. [3]

According to the 1880 US Federal Census, [4] Wallace lived with his parents on a farm in Nunda Township, McHenry County, Illinois, and worked as a farm laborer. His father is listed as a gardener and his mother as "keeping house". Wallace is listed as being born in Illinois while his parents are listed as born in New York. No other siblings are recorded as living with the family. [5] According to the 1910 census, Wattles was married to Abbie Wattles (nee Bryant), 47. They had three children: Florence Wattles, 22, Russell H. Wattles, 27, and Agnes Wattles, 16. It also shows that at the time Wallace's mother Mary A. Wattles was living with the family at the age of 79.

Florence wrote that "he made lots of money, and had good health, except for his extreme frailty" in the last three years before his death. [3] Wattles died on February 7, 1911 in Ruskin, Tennessee, and his body was transported home for burial to Elwood, Indiana. [6] As a sign of respect businesses closed throughout the town for two hours on the afternoon of his funeral. [6]

His death at age 51 was regarded as "untimely" by his daughter [3] in the previous year he had not only published two books (The Science of Being Well and The Science of Getting Rich), but he had also run for public office. [7]

In 1896 in Chicago, Illinois, Wattles attended "a convention of reformers" and met George Davis Herron, [8] [9] a Congregational Church minister and professor of Applied Christianity at Grinnell College [10] who was then attracting nationwide attention by preaching a form of Christian Socialism. [11]

After meeting Herron, Wattles became a social visionary and began to expound upon what Florence called "the wonderful, social message of Jesus." [3] According to Florence, he at one time had held a position in the Methodist Church, but was ejected for his "heresy". [3] Two of his books (A New Christ and Jesus: The Man and His Work) dealt with Christianity from a Socialist perspective.

In the 1908 election, he ran as a Socialist Party of America candidate in the Eighth Congressional District [12] in 1910 he again ran as a Socialist candidate, for the office of Prosecuting Attorney for the Madison County, Indiana 50th court district. [7] He did not win either election. Florence Wattles remained a Socialist after his death, and was a delegate to the Socialist Party National Committee in 1912 and 1915. [13]

As a Midwesterner, Wattles traveled to Chicago, where several leading New Thought leaders were located, among them Emma Curtis Hopkins and William Walker Atkinson, and he gave "Sunday night lectures" in Indiana [3] however, his primary publisher was Massachusetts-based Elizabeth Towne. [14]

He studied the writings of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Ralph Waldo Emerson, [15] and recommended the study of their books to his readers who wished to understand what he characterized as "the monistic theory of the cosmos." [15] [16]

Through his personal study and experimentation Wattles claimed to have discovered the truth of New Thought principles and put them into practice in his own life. He also advocated the then-popular health theories of "The Great Masticator" Horace Fletcher as well as the "No-Breakfast Plan" of Edward Hooker Dewey, [17] which he claimed to have applied to his own life. He wrote books outlining these principles and practices, giving them titles that described their content, such as Health Through New Thought and Fasting and The Science of Being Great. His daughter Florence recalled that "he lived every page" of his books.

A practical author, Wattles encouraged his readers to test his theories on themselves rather than take his word as an authority, and he claimed to have tested his methods on himself and others before publishing them. [18]

Wattles practiced the technique of creative visualization. In his daughter Florence's words, he "formed a mental picture" or visual image, and then "worked toward the realization of this vision": [3]

He wrote almost constantly. It was then that he formed his mental picture. He saw himself as a successful writer, a personality of power, an advancing man, and he began to work toward the realization of this vision. He lived every page. His life was truly the powerful life.

Rhonda Byrne told a Newsweek interviewer that her inspiration for creating the 2006 hit film The Secret, and the subsequent book by the same name, was her exposure to Wattles's The Science of Getting Rich. [19] Byrne's daughter, Hayley, had given her mother a copy of the Wattles book to help her recover from her breakdown. [20] The film itself also references, by re-popularizing the term The Law of Attraction, [19] a 1908 book by another New Thought author, William Walker Atkinson, titled Thought Vibration or the Law of Attraction in the Thought World.


Herron's commitment to #BlackLivesMatter

Eleven days ago, at the hands of those sworn to protect and serve, we witnessed the killing of George Floyd, an unarmed black man, on the heels of the senseless killings of Dreasjon Reed, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and many others. This violence is an embodiment of institutional and systemic racism that perpetuates violence and injustice against black, indigenous, and people of color across the nation and within our local communities.

As the country grieves, protests, and demands that real and lasting change be made, I believe it is equally important to look to each other, ask the uncomfortable questions, and ensure that we address collectively the need for greater diversity, equity, and inclusion within our own institution. Herron will prioritize these conversations as we advance and strengthen our commitment to social justice and institutional change.

Herron School of Art and Design actively denounces racism, racial injustice, and violent manifestations of hatred based on skin color. We stand with those protesting police brutality. We grieve for the black lives that have been lost or victimized in our country's long history. As a school, we are dedicated to fostering an environment in which the rights, dignity, and lives of all members of our community are valued and respected. Black lives matter, and we reject ideas and actions that promote white supremacy and a militarized police force.

I encourage you, as you respond to these acts and engage with others, to be kind, and above all, to be safe. This community needs you. This movement needs you — and needs all of us.

We stand united with our black students, faculty, staff, alumni, and friends. Herron sees you. We're listening to you. You matter greatly to us all.


Player Value--Batting

View Complete Notes on Fielding Data

  • Pre-1916 SB & CS data for catchers is estimated from catcher assists, games started and opposition stolen bases.
  • From 1916 on SB, CS, Pickoff, & WP data for catchers and pitchers is taken from play-by-play accounts in the retrosheet files. There are several hundred games without pbp from 1916 to 1972 and for those we may not have any data.
  • CG & GS come from the retrosheet data and should be complete and pretty accurate from 1901 on.
  • Innings played (like SB and CS) come from the retrosheet play-by-play data and should be considered mostly complete from 1916 to 1972 and complete from then on.
  • Stats (PO,A,G, etc) for LF-CF-RF positions (since 1901) is taken from play-by-play or box score data as available.
  • Stats (PO,A,G,etc) for C,P,1B,2B,3B,SS,OF positions is taken from the official reported totals and may have been corrected at various times since their publication.
  • For detailed information on which games retrosheet is missing play-by-play from 1916 to 1972, please see their most wanted games list
  • For detailed information on the availability of data on this site by year, see our data coverage page

Oldest Inhabitants, of the Tuscarawas Valley

The following are lists of the oldest inhabitants of the valley, who were born prior to the beginning of the present century, and who were, with a few exceptions, ancestors of the persons of the same name now living in Tuscarawas and other counties:

Oldest Inhabitants of One Leg Township, living in 1830
[This township was added to Carroll at the erection of that county, in 1833]

Born between 1730 and 1740
Mrs. Gamble, mother of George

Born between 1740 and 1750
Mary Waggoner
Mathias Shiltz

Born between 1750 and 1760
Samuel Snelling
William Reed and wife
Adam Swihart, Sr.
Henry Martin
Frederick Walters
Mrs. Warford, grand-mother of William

Born between 1760 and 1770

John Rule
Jacob Crager and wife
Ann Patterson
John Phoenix
William Gamble
Mrs. Laffer, mother of Adam
John Bowers, Sr.
George Crumrine
Mary Warner
John Fry and wife
Joseph Jeffries
William Perkins
John Getterell
William Bavard and wife
Mrs. Barrack Roby
James Roby and wife
Benjamin Leggett

Born between 1770 and 1780

Michael Thompson
George Nicholson
Joseph Boyd
James Palmer
Samuel McKee
Daniel McMillan
John Sterling
Samuel Hyde
William Watkins
Joseph McDaniel and wife
Abram Warner
William Rouse
Michael Quinn
Jesse Clark and wife
Benjamin Knight
George Gamble and wife
William Ball
Daniel Black
Sarah Stoneman
Barney Bower and wife
Alexander Smith and wife
Mrs. Richard Huff
Patrick McMillan
Richard Coleman
William Kyle
Amos Doyle and wife
Henry Ball and wife
Jesse Carter
Eve Glass
Parlan Pyle
Thomas Walker
Barrack Roby
James Parker
Mrs. George Crumrine
Mrs. William Gamble

Oldest Inhabitants of Oxford Township

Born between 1760 and 1770
Samuel Tucker
John Pearce Sr., and wife
Mrs. Gardner
Margaret Tufford

Born between 1770 and 1780
Sarah Booth
Mrs. Anderson
John Mulvane
Lewis Roberts
William Andrews
Elizabeth Neighbor
William Neighbor, Sr.
James Sloane
Mary Ann Salyards
Joseph North

Oldest Inhabitants of Perry Township

Born between 1730 and 1740
Mrs. Swain, mother of Joshua
Joseph Johnson
Rebecca Kannon

Born between 1710 and 1750
John Shaw

Born between 1750 and 1760
Mrs. Severgood, grandmother of Jacob
Mrs. Morrison, grandmother of Samuel
Peter Hammer
Thomas Archbold
Elisha Kitch and wife

Born between 1760 and 1770
John Williams
Richard Moore and wife
Ebenezer Kitch

Born between 1770 and 1780

Shadrack Minster
Mrs. John Williams
Stephen Horn
Moses Horn
Mrs. Parks
Mrs. Robert McCoy
Edward Johnson
Mrs. Schooly, mother of Samuel
Joseph Johnson
Neil Morris
William George
Samuel Boston and wife
John Wilson and wife
Gabriel Vansickle and wife
Timora Russell
Mrs. T. Archbold

Oldest Inhabitants of Rush Township

Born between 1750 and 1760
Michael Sponsler

Born between 1760 and 1770
Thomas Gibson
John Fairbrother
Mrs. Ginter, mother of John
Casper Warner
Joshua Davis
William Caples, Sr.

Born between 1770 and 1780

Michael Van Fleary,
John Uhrich,
Robert Laughlin,
Mrs. Thomas Gibson,
Thomas Connell,
Mrs. Michael Sponsler,
Esther Crumm,
Peter Bowman and wife,
Daniel Enterline,
Conrad Westhaver,
Mrs. Joshua Davis,
Abijah Robinett,
James Tracy,
John Lambright.

Oldest Inhabitants of Salem Township

Born between 1750 and 1760
Peter Good

Born between 1760 and 1770
Humphrey Corbin

Born between 1770 and 1780
William Haga and wife
Mrs. Peter Good
Mrs. Frankboner
Mrs. Paine
Burris Moore
Mrs. Barneby Riley
Charles Hill and wife
Jesse Hill and wife

Oldest Inhabitants of Sandy Township

Born between 1740 and 1750
Walling Miller and wife

Born between 1750 and 1760,
Mrs. M. Burroway
Philip Farber and wife
George Barnett
Catherine Fulk

Born between 1760 and 1770
Elizabeth Grinder
John Lennox
William Baird
Elizabeth West
Mrs. J. Johnson
Thomas McKnight
Mary Shees
Michael Flicking and wife

Born between 1770 and 1780

Joseph Sadler,
George Barringer and wife
Frederick Holtzhoy
James Bailey
John Burke and wife
Asa Menard and wile
Henry Wingate,
Thomas McKnight and wife
William Williams
Joshua Weaver

Oldest Inhabitants of Sugar Creek Township

Born between 1740 and 1750
Michael Dorner, Sr

Born between 1750 and 1760

Mrs. Michael Dorner
Mrs. Bittle, mother of George
Mrs. Walter, mother of John
Joseph Kine and wife
John Yotter
David Miller
Jacob Miller, Sr.
Mrs. Mafendish, mother of William D.

Born between 1760 and 1770

John Ballman
Daniel Kaiser
Susannah Correll
Peter Harmon and wife
John Miller and wife
Isaac Miller
Mrs. Coblentz, mother of Jacob
Mrs. Jacob Miller, Sr.
James Hattery
Joseph Hanlon and wife

Born between 1770 and 1780

George Richardson and wife
John Walten Jacob Dietz and wife
Mrs. Daniel Kaiser
John Bricker
Frederick Dorner
Chris. Winklepleck
Peter Hostetter
George Dyce and wife
George Smiley
George Miller
Abram Snyder
Daniel Yotter
Henry Kuniz
Ephriam Middaugh
Jacob Miller, Jr.
Mrs. James Hattery
Christian Livengood
Leonard Hyder
Catherine Barnhouse
John Schultze
Jacob Lowe
William D. Mafendish
Mary Noel
Andrew Burkey

Oldest Inhabitants of Warren and Union Townships

Born between 1740 and 1750
Mrs. Holmes, mother of Jacob
Conrad Pearch
Frederick Everhart
Mrs. Conover, grandmother of James

Born between 1750 and 1760
Charles Scott
Joseph Wilson
Joseph Rutter Sr.
Samuel Sample, Sr.
Mrs. Frederick Everhart
William Trussell
John Beamer
John Wyandt, Sr.

Born between 1760 and 1770

Joseph Hayes,
Frederick Mizer and wife,
William Scott and wife,
Samuel Russell,
Jacob Holmes,
Thomas Mills and wife,
George Davis,
John Witchcraft,
Samuel Anderson,
Paul Preston,
John Dunlap
Michael Smith,
Robert Stevenson and wife,
Peter Jennings and wife,
John Ramsberger and wife,
Samuel Lappin and wife
Martin Hoffman,
Philip Senter
William McClary, Sr.,
Thomas McPherson,
Reuben Runyan,
Peter Beamer.
Patrick Reardon,
William Sherrard,
Abram Richardson, Sr. and wife,
Moses Shaw,
Benjamin Price,
John Tinkey,
Charles N. Lindsey and wife,
William Sears,
George Study

Born between 1770 and 1780

Samuel Griffin
Henry Machaman and wife
Joseph Miller
Kinsey Cahill
Robert Scott and wife
George Davis
Philip Capel and wife
Mary Huffman
James Russell
David Davis
James Davis
Andrew Miller and wife
George Alfred
Andrew Black
Catherine Strause
William Conwell
Elizabeth Marley
Daniel Swally and wife
Joseph Buskirk
William Albaugh
Adam Beamer
Frederick Weaver
James Sellers and wife
Jacob Shaffer
Peter Close
John Cross
Adam Sherrard
Nicholas Skeels
Richard Herron
Philip Miller
Isaac Masters
Mary Seran
Obadiah Holmes

Oldest Inhabitants of Warwick Township

Born between 1740 and 1750
Barney Reyscrt, Sr.

Born between 1750 and 1760
William Simmers, Sr., and wife
Godfrey Weathaver
Henry Davis

Born between 1760 and 1770
Jesse Walton
Samuel Fry
Abraham Fry
Mrs. Benjamin Lane
Jacob Royer and wife
Mrs. Barney Rupert

Born between 1770 and 1780

Boaz Walton, Jr.
John G. Hoffman
Henry Keller
George Metzger
John Knouse
John Demuth
Asa Walton and wife
John Whitehead
Joseph Sturgiss
William Hill
Joseph Madden
John Romig and wife
Joseph Shemal
John Richmond and wife
Richard Taylor
Catherine Whitman

Oldest Inhabitants of Washington Township

Born between 1750 and 1760
Matthew Organ
Mrs. George Hussey, Sr.

Born between 1700 and 1770
Jonathan Andrews and wife
Mrs. Matthew Organ
Benjamin G. Duharnell
George Hussey, Jr.
Joseph Taylor

Born between 1770 and 1780
Anannias Randall and wife
Jesse Webb
Isaac Webb
Joseph Miller
James Hamilton
Magdalene Taylor

Oldest Inhabitants of Wayne Township.

Born between 1740 and 1750
William Collett
Mrs. Burrell, mother of Benjamin

Born between 1750 and 1760
John France

Born between 1760 and 1770

Henry Myers
Eve Baer
Henry Duncan
John Bess, Sr., and wife
Jacob Bartlett and wife
Daniel Bowers
Mrs. Obadiah Patterson
Adam Reamer
Cornelius Hand
Edward Jordan,

Born between 1770 and 1780

John Aultman and wife
Eve Deardorff
George Wallack
John Tyler and wife
John Michael
Benjamin Gorsuch
Henry Knovel
John Lidey
Jacob Knaga
Mrs. Henry Duncan
Mrs. Bayliss Jennings
John Burrell
George Gusler
Jere. Savage and wife
Jonathan Williams
Regena Fulk
Mrs. Philip Bash
Mrs. Daniel Bowers
George Rickett and wife
John McQuiston, Sr., and wife
Jacob Snearly
James Mills
Mrs. Adam Reamer
Mrs. David Reshley
Aesop Johnson
John G. Miller
Michael Wallack
John Wright, Sr.
Mary Ann Shonk
Elizabeth Swip,
Patrick Moore
Michael Kore and wife
John Seloz
Abraham Beninger

Oldest Inhabitants of York Township

Born between 1750 and 1760
Frederick Hummell
Henry Shawver

Born between 1760 and 1770
Mrs. Frederick Hummell
John Shull
John Pence
William Ross
Eli Barton
George Putt
John Benfer and wife

Born between 1770 and 1780

William Butt
Mrs. John Shull
Francis Garnant
Henry Ankeny
Samuel Deardorff and wife
Lewis Fox
Mrs. Eli Barton
Mrs. George Putt
Christian Beaver
Mary Cummings
George W. Kuhn
William Wolff
Henry Shawver
John Grimes and wife
Jacob Howe
Michael Bedinger.

Source: Ohio Annals, Historic Events, Tuscarawas and Muskingum Valleys, The State of Ohio, Edited by C. H. Mitchener, 1876

Copyright August © 2011 - 2021 AHGP AHGP The American History and Genealogy Project.
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Suspect in pregnant woman's shooting death had lengthy criminal history

Justin Jerel Herron is accused of shooting and killing Patra Perkins inside the HomeTowne Suites at the 5900 block of Guhn Road.

Justin Jerel Herron is accused of shooting and killing Patra Perkins inside the HomeTowne Suites at the 5900 block of Guhn Road.

Justin Jerel Herron is accused of shooting and killing Patra Perkins inside the HomeTowne Suites at the 5900 block of Guhn Road.

Justin Jerel Herron is accused of shooting and killing Patra Perkins inside the HomeTowne Suites at the 5900 block of Guhn Road.

Justin Jerel Herron is accused of shooting and killing Patra Perkins inside the HomeTowne Suites at the 5900 block of Guhn Road.

A 31-year-old man has been charged with capital murder in the death of an 18-year-old pregnant woman whose body was found in a northwest Houston motel room, police said.

Justin Jerel Herron is accused of shooting and killing Patra Perkins inside the HomeTowne Suites at the 5900 block of Guhn Road.

Perkins' body was found by police early Monday inside a room at the motel with multiple gunshots, according to police.

Police believe the teen had been dead since Friday. The room at the motel was registered to Herron from Aug. 2 through Aug. 9, police said.

Police have been searching for Herron since they made the gruesome discovery Monday.

The 31-year-old is out on a $35,000 bond stemming from a July 2018 case in which Herron fled from police attempting to arrest him.

Harris County prosecutors have three open felony cases against Herron, not including Tuesday's capital murder charge, records show. All three, which include evading arrest, unauthorized use of a vehicle, and theft, are set to be heard by a judge on Aug. 16, records show.

Herron has a lengthy criminal history that goes back more than a decade and includes aggravated robbery with a deadly weapon, felony assault, endangering a child and evading arrest.

In 2016, Herron was indicted by a grand jury on a felony family violence assault charge after police said he struck a woman. That case was dismissed after Herron was convicted in a separate case involving an assault on a detention officer. The charge was reduced from a felony to a misdemeanor and Herron served one year in county jail, according to court documents.

In 2011, a judge ordered Herron to serve one year in prison for endangering a child after running red lights and driving over the speed limit with a child unsecured in a child's safety seat, according to court documents.

Court records show Herron was convicted in Walbarger County, Texas of felony assault on a public servant in 2006.

Police found Perkins' body after they received a tip from a person who "flagged down" police as they patrolled an area near the motel, police said on Monday.

The officer spoke to management and conducted a welfare check, knocking on the motel room several times. When no one answered, officers went inside and found the woman's body, police said.

If you know of Herron's whereabouts, please call HPD Homicide 713-308-3600 or provide an anonymous tip to @CrimeStopHOU 713-222-TIPS for reward up to $5K for info leading to his arrest.


When One of George Washington's Enslaved Workers Escaped to Freedom

When he was just 11 years old, George Washington inherited 10 slaves from his father’s estate. He would acquire many more in the years to come, whether through the death of other family members or by purchasing them directly. When he married the wealthy widow Martha Dandridge Custis in 1759, she brought more than 80 enslaved workers along with her, bringing the total number of enslaved men, women and children at Mount Vernon to more than 150 by the time the Revolutionary War began.

Ona Judge was born around 1773. Her mother, Betty, was a 𠇍ower slave,” part of the estate of Martha’s first husband her father, Andrew Judge, was a white indentured servant who had recently arrived in America from Leeds, England. After fulfilling his four-year work contract at Mount Vernon, Andrew Judge moved off the plantation to start his own farm. As children born to enslaved women were considered property of the slaveholder, according to Virginia law, his daughter remained in bondage.

Ona, more commonly known as Oney, moved into the mansion house when she was just 9 years old. Like her mother, she became a talented and highly valued seamstress, and was later promoted to become Martha Washington’s personal maid. When Washington headed to New York City in 1789 for his inauguration as president, Oney was one of only a handful of enslaved people the couple took with them. Late the following year, when the federal capital moved to Philadelphia, the presidential household moved with it.

George Washington’s Mount Vernon estate.

(Credit: Martin Falbisoner/Creative Commons)

With an active and growing free black community of some 6,000 people, Philadelphia had become the nation’s leading hotbed of abolitionism. In fact, as Erica Armstrong Dunbar writes in her book, Never Caught: The Washingtons’ Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge, Oney would have been in the minority as a enslaved woman in Philadelphia fewer than 100 slaves lived within city limits in 1796. To evade a gradual abolition law that took effect in Pennsylvania in 1780, the Washingtons made sure to transport their enslaved workers in and out of the state every six months to avoid them establishing legal residency.

As the first lady’s bodyservant, Judge helped dress her mistress for special events, traveled with her on social calls and ran errands for her. Over more than five years in Philadelphia—traveling in and out every six months—she met and became acquainted with members of the city’s free black community and former enslaved workers who had gained their freedom under the gradual abolition law. Such interactions undoubtedly fueled her thinking about slavery, the changing laws regarding the institution and the possibilities of freedom.

In the spring of 1796, when she was 22 years old, Judge learned that Martha Washington planned to give her away as a wedding gift to her famously temperamental granddaughter, Elizabeth Parke Custis. As Dunbar writes, “Martha Washington’s decision to turn Judge over to Eliza was a reminder to Judge and everyone enslaved at the Executive Mansion that they had absolutely no control over their lives, no matter how loyally they served.”

So, as the household prepared for the Washingtons’ return to Mount Vernon for the summer, Judge made plans for her escape. On May 21, 1796, she slipped out of the mansion while the president and first lady were eating their supper. Members of the free black community helped her get aboard a ship commanded by Captain John Bowles, who sailed frequently between Philadelphia, New York and Portsmouth, New Hampshire. After a five-day journey, Judge disembarked in that coastal city, where she would begin her new life.

(Credit: Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images)

With a free black population of some 360 citizens and virtually no enslaved workers, Portsmouth was different from any place Judge had ever known. She found lodging within the free black community, which was accustomed to aiding fugitive slaves, and supported herself doing domestic work, one of the few opportunities available for women of color.

During the summer after she escaped, Judge was walking in Portsmouth when she saw Elizabeth Langdon, the daughter of New Hampshire Senator John Langdon. Betsy Langdon recognized Oney, having encountered her before when calling on Martha Washington, a family friend, or her granddaughter Nelly Custis. After Judge passed by without acknowledging her, Betsy likely told her father of the sighting, and her father felt obligated to notify Washington of his fugitive slave’s whereabouts.

Trying to act discreetly, Washington got in contact with Joseph Whipple, the collector of customs in Portsmouth and the brother of famed Revolutionary General William Whipple. When Whipple tracked Judge down (by falsely advertising that he was seeking a female domestic for his home), he asked her about her reasons for fleeing bondage, and offered to negotiate on her behalf. He subsequently wrote to Washington that she had agreed to return, on the condition that she be freed when Martha Washington died.

Dunbar writes in her book that Judge never intended to honor this agreement: “She told Whipple what he wanted to hear, agreed to return to her owners, and left his presence with no intention of ever keeping her word.” In any case, Washington bluntly refused Whipple’s proposal, writing that “To enter into such a compromise…is totally inadmissible.” Though he might be in favor of gradual abolition of slavery, the president continued, he didn’t want to reward Judge’s “unfaithfulness” and inspire other enslaved people to try and escape.

A depiction of George Washington during a harvest.

(Credit: Leemage/Corbis via Getty Images)

By the 1780s, Washington’s feelings about slavery had changed, and he expressed his uneasiness with the institution to close friends, including his Revolutionary War comrade the Marquis de Lafayette. But as his reaction to Judge’s escape made clear, Washington was not ready to give up on the bound labor on which his Virginia plantation𠅊nd his life—was built. Far from a passive bystander in the perpetuation of slavery, Washington at this point was actively engaged in returning Judge to his (or his wife’s) possession.

With antislavery sentiment growing in New Hampshire, and Washington’s influence waning as his term ended, Whipple did little more to pursue Judge on his behalf. Safe for the time being, she started building a life in Portsmouth, and married Jack Staines, a free black sailor, in early 1797.

Though marriage gave her some additional legal protection, Ona remained vigilant–with good reason. In August 1799, Washington asked his nephew, Burwell Bassett Jr., to try and seize Judge and any children she may have had on his upcoming business trip to New Hampshire. When Bassett dined with Langdon and told him of his intention, the senator quickly got word to Ona through one of his servants. Jack Staines was at sea at the time, but Ona managed to escape to the neighboring town of Greenland, where she and her infant daughter hid with a free black family, the Jacks, until Bassett left Portsmouth, empty-handed.

Four months later, George Washington died, freeing all of his enslaved workers according to his will. Though the gesture was far from meaningless, it didn’t go far enough. Martha Washington, who lived until 1802, couldn’t even legally have emancipated her enslaved workers upon her death (including, technically, Oney Judge Staines and her children), as they were part of her inheritance from her first husband and by law went to her surviving grandchildren. In the end, Washington and his fellow founders would push the hard decisions about slavery off onto future generations of Americans–with explosive consequences.

Ona Judge Staines lived with her husband and their three children until Jack’s death in 1803. After briefly holding a live-in position with the Bartlett family in Portsmouth, Ona left and moved with her children into the home of the Jacks family, where they remained. Work was scarce, and Ona’s son, William, is believed to have left home in the 1820s to become a sailor, like his father. Her two daughters, Eliza and Nancy, were sadly forced into indentured servitude both died before their mother. After she became too old for physical labor, Ona herself lived in poverty, relying on donations from the community.

Despite all the hardships, Ona enjoyed the benefits of a life of freedom: She taught herself to read and write, embraced Christianity and worshiped regularly at a church of her choice. Several years before her death in 1848, she granted two interviews to abolitionist newspapers recounting her journey from bondage. When a reporter from the Granite Freeman asked her if she regretted leaving the relative luxury of the Washingtons’ household, as she had worked so much harder after her escape, Ona Judge Staines memorably replied “No, I am free, and have, I trust been made a child of God by the means.”


Brave Hearts: The Little Rock Nine

African-American students escorted by federal troops, Little Rock Central High School, 1957.

George Silk/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Written By: Ben Cosgrove

For centuries race has been a contentious and often corrosive topic in America’s national dialogue. Nothing has illuminated America’s failings as harshly as the nation’s handling of racial strife nothing has more clearly shown us at our best and our bravest as the victories won by the men and women in the great struggles of the Civil Rights Movement.

For generations who have grown up in a country where blatant segregation is (technically, at least) illegal, it’s bizarre to think that well within out nation’s collective living memory African-American children once needed armed soldiers to escort them safely to school. But just six decades ago, the president of the United States was compelled to call on combat troops to ensure that nine teenagers in Little Rock, Ark., were protected from the enmity of their classmates and neighbors.

The Little Rock Nine, as the teens came to be known, were black students who sought to attend Little Rock Central High School in the fall of 1957. The Supreme Court had ruled segregated schools unconstitutional in its landmark 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling. Three years later, states in the South finally began to face the reality of federally mandated integration. It was historic, and dramatic and for weeks on end, it was profoundly ugly.

Reporters and photographers from across the country traveled to Little Rock, expecting to chronicle the cultural poison unleashed in the South each time strides were made toward full desegregation. In Little Rock, on Sept. 4, 1957 on the first day of school the media recorded the scene as 15-year-old Elizabeth Eckford, the first of the nine to arrive, was sent off of school grounds by Arkansas National Guardsmen, their rifles raised.

Arkansas governor Orval Faubus had ordered this armed intervention by guardsmen under the pretense of preventing bloodshed—a scenario, LIFE noted at the time, that many Arkansans felt was unlikely to come to pass. Still, Faubus’s actions proved a successful, if temporary, roadblock.

A profile of Faubus published in the next week’s issue of LIFE noted that the governor spent several days holed up in his Little Rock mansion. Photographer Grey Villet and correspondent Paul Welch were with Faubus during his “self-imposed confinement,” noting in words and photos the man’s routines, which included answering letters from hundreds of segregationists sending cash and letters of support for his anti-integration resolve.

“The governor gulped tranquilizers and ate bland food to appease a troublesome stomach,” Welch wrote, noting that Faubus really seemed to believe that he was acting only with the best intentions for everyone involved in the standoff.

“A man without a great deal of courage would have taken the easy way out and said to the Negroes, ‘Go in there and get hurt,'” Faubus said. “But I’d rather take the criticism than face the prospect that I’d been negligent and caused someone’s death in this integration thing.”

The federal government, meanwhile, didn’t quite buy the governor’s justification for his actions in “this integration thing.” Interrupting his own vacation, President Dwight Eisenhower met with Faubus shortly afterward, the Arkansas National Guard was removed from the school grounds.

On the heels of that decision came what LIFE deemed “a historic week of civil strife.”

On Sept. 23, the nine students entered Little Rock Central High School for the first time, ignoring verbal abuse and threats from the crowd outside. When the mob realized the students had successfully entered the school, violence erupted, and seven journalists were attacked including two reporting for LIFE. As the situation deteriorated, school officials, fearing for the students’ safety, dismissed the Little Rock Nine at lunchtime.

The next day, President Eisenhower ordered paratroopers from the 101st Airborne Division to the school, escorting students to the building and singling out troublemakers bent on disrupting the federal mandate. Over the following days, these troops and members of the Arkansas National Guard Eisenhower had federalized 10,000 guardsman, effectively taking them out from under Faubus’s control kept the situation in hand, their (armed) presence serving to pacify the more belligerent and strident elements in town.

Here, LIFE.com presents the work, much of which never ran in LIFE, of no less than six of the magazine’s photographers from Arkansas: Ed Clark, Francis Miller, Grey Villet, George Silk, Thomas McAvoy and Stan Wayman. Each brought his skills to bear on the events in Little Rock and, later, in Van Buren, Ark., in 1957 and 󈧾, and thus helped keep the desegregation struggle squarely in the public eye.

Although the Little Rock Nine were finally able to attend classes by late September 1957, the fight wasn’t over: throughout the rest of the school year, they faced ongoing abuse, threats, discrimination and acts of hazing from their white peers and, disgracefully, from equally vicious adults. But when spring 1958 came around, eight of the nine had successfully completed the school year. In an elemental way, they had won.

Vaughn Wallace is a photo editor and historian. Follow him @vaughnwallace.

Arkansas National Guardsmen prevented African-American students from entering Little Rock Central High School, September 1957.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

A convoy of Jeeps from the 101st Airborne headed to Little Rock.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Members of the Arkansas National Guard stood on duty during the integration of Little Rock Central High School, 1957.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Members of the Little Rock Nine arrived at school, only to be turned away by Arkansas National Guardsmen, 1957.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Hazel Bryant followed and jeered at Elizabeth Eckford as Eckford walked from Little Rock’s Central High after Arkansas National Guardsmen barred Eckford from school.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

African American students, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Elizabeth Eckford, one of the Little Rock Nine, was waved off school grounds by Arkansas National Guardsmen, September, 1957.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Elizabeth Eckford and family watched TV, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Members of the Little Rock Nine during legal hearings on their attempts to enter Little Rock Central High School, September 1957.

Grey Villet/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Segregationists picketed in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

Ed Clark/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

A group of jeering anti-integrationists trailed two black students down a street in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

Ed Clark/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Troops raced to break up a crowd protesting school integration, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

Ed Clark/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Segregationists rousted from an anti-integration protest, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

Ed Clark/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Segregationists rousted from an anti-integration protest, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

Ed Clark/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

African-American students arrived at Little Rock Central High under heavy guard by troops from the 101st Airborne, 1957.

Ed Clark/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Paratroopers from the 101st Airborne stood guard outside Little Rock Central High School, September 1957.

George Silk/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Scene in Little Rock, Arkansas, during anti-integration protests in September 1957.

George Silk/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Troops from the 101st Airborne squared off against anti-integrationists, Little Rock, Arkansas, September 1957.

George Silk/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Scene in Little Rock, Arkansas, during anti-integration protests in September 1957.

George Silk/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

African-American students escorted by federal troops, Little Rock Central High School, 1957.

George Silk/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Troops from the 101st Airborne patrolled the streets of Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

George Silk/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Civil Rights leader Daisy Bates gazed through her front window, watching the U.S. Army’s 101st Airborne Division escort the Little Rock Nine from her home to begin their first full day of classes at the formerly all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

Thomas McAvoy/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Daisy Bates, an NAACP leader, met with African-American students who had been denied admittance to public schools, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

Stan Wayman/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

African-American students were refused admission to their high school’s football game, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957.

Stan Wayman/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

At a school in Van Buren, Arkansas, African-American students arrived in front of a crowd of journalists and other onlookers, 1957.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

African-American students arrived at school in Van Buren, Arkansas, the year after the Little Rock Nine integrated Little Rock’s public schools, September 1958.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Students entered a previously segregated school, Arkansas, 1958.

Francis Miller/Life Pictures/Shutterstock


America’s First True “Pilgrims”

The first Pilgrims to reach America seeking religious freedom were English and settled in Massachusetts. Right?

Well, not so fast. Some fifty years before the Mayflower left port, a band of French colonists came to the New World. Like the later English Pilgrims, these Protestants were victims of religious wars, raging across France and much of Europe. And like those later Pilgrims, they too wanted religious freedom and the chance for a new life. But they also wanted to attack Spanish treasure ships sailing back from the Americas.Their story is at the heart of the following excerpt from America's Hidden History: Untold Tales of the First Pilgrims, Fighting Women, and Forgotten Founders Who Shaped a Nation.

It is a story of America's birth and baptism in a religious bloodbath. A few miles south of St. Augustine sits Fort Mantanzas (the word is Spanish for "slaughters"). Now a national monument, the place reveals the "hidden history" behind America's true "first pilgrims," an episode that speaks volumes about the European arrival in the Americas and the most untidy religious struggles that shaped the nation.

St. Augustine, Florida — September 1565
It was a storm-dark night in late summer as Admiral Pedro Menéndez pressed his army of 500 infantrymen up Florida's Atlantic Coast with a Crusader's fervor. Lashed by hurricane winds and sheets of driving rain, these 16th-century Spanish shock troops slogged through the tropical downpour in their heavy armor, carrying pikes, broadswords and the "harquebus," a primitive, front-loading musket which had been used with devastating effect by the conquistador armies of Cortés and Pizarro in Mexico and Peru. Each man also carried a twelve-pound sack of bread and a bottle of wine.

Guided by friendly Timucuan tribesmen, the Spanish assault force had spent two difficult days negotiating the treacherous 38-mile trek from St. Augustine, their recently established settlement further down the coast. Slowed by knee-deep muck that sucked at their boots, they had been forced to cross rain-swollen rivers, home to the man-eating monsters and flying fish of legend. Wet, tired and miserable, they were far from home in a land that had completely swallowed two previous Spanish armies—conquistadors who themselves had been conquered by tropical diseases, starvation and hostile native warriors.

But Admiral Menéndez was undeterred. Far more at home on sea than leading infantry, Admiral Menéndez drove his men with such ferocity because he was gambling—throwing the dice that he could reach the enemy before they struck him. His objective was the French settlement of Fort Caroline, France's first foothold in the Americas, located near present-day Jacksonville, on what the French called the River of May. On this pitch-black night, the small, triangular, wood-palisaded fort was occupied by a few hundred men, women and children. They were France's first colonists in the New World—and the true first "Pilgrims" in America.

Attacking before dawn on September 20, 1565 with the frenzy of holy warriors, the Spanish easily overwhelmed Fort Caroline. With information provided by a French turncoat, the battle-tested Spanish soldiers used ladders to quickly mount the fort's wooden walls. Inside the settlement, the sleeping Frenchmen—most of them farmers or laborers rather than soldiers—were caught off-guard, convinced that no attack could possibly come in the midst of such a terrible storm. But they had fatally miscalculated. The veteran Spanish harquebusiers swept in on the nightshirted and naked Frenchmen who leapt from their beds and grabbed futilely for weapons. Their attempts to mount any real defense were hopeless. The battle lasted less than an hour.

Although some of the French defenders managed to escape the carnage, 132 soldiers and civilians were killed in the fighting in the small fort. The Spanish suffered no losses and only a single man was wounded. The forty or so French survivors fortunate enough to reach the safety of some boats anchored nearby, watched helplessly as Spanish soldiers flicked the eyeballs of the French dead with the points of their daggers. The shaken survivors then scuttled one of their boats and sailed the other two back to France.

America's Hidden History book cover (Smithsonian Books) Fort Matanzas, about fifty feet long on each side, was constructed of coquina, a local stone formed from clam shells and quarried from a nearby island. (courtesy of National Park Service) Fort Caroline, the small, triangular, wood-palisaded fort that was occupied by a few hundred men, women and children when attacked by the Spanish. (courtesy of National Park Service)

The handful of Fort Caroline's defenders who were not lucky enough to escape were quickly rounded up by the Spanish. About fifty women and children were also taken captive, later to be shipped to Puerto Rico. The men were hung without hesitation. Above the dead men, the victorious Admiral Menéndez placed a sign reading, "I do this, not as to Frenchmen, but as to Lutherans." Renaming the captured French settlement San Mateo (St. Matthew) and its river San Juan (St. John's), Menéndez later reported to Spain's King Philip II that he had taken care of the "evil Lutheran sect."

Victims of the political and religious wars raging across Europe, the ill-fated inhabitants of Fort Caroline were not "Lutherans" at all. For the most part, they were Huguenots, French Protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin, the French-born Protestant theologian. Having built and settled Fort Caroline more than a year earlier, these French colonists had been left all but defenseless by the questionable decision of one of their leaders, Jean Ribault. An experienced sea captain, Ribault had sailed off from Fort Caroline a few days earlier with between five and six hundred men aboard his flagship, the Trinité, and three other galleons.  Against the advice of René de Laudonniére, his fellow commander at Fort Caroline, Ribault planned to strike the new Spanish settlement before the recently arrived Spanish could establish their defenses. Unfortunately for Ribault and his shipmates, as well as those left behind at Fort Caroline, the hurricane that slowed Admiral Menéndez and his army also ripped into the small French flotilla, scattering and grounding most of the ships, sending hundreds of men to their deaths. According to René de Laudonniére, it was, "the worst weather ever seen on this coast."

Unaware that Fort Caroline had fallen, groups of French survivors of the storm-savaged fleet came ashore near present-day Daytona Beach and Cape Canaveral. Trudging north, they were spotted by Indians who alerted Menéndez. The bedraggled Frenchmen were met and captured by Spanish troops at a coastal inlet about 17 miles south of St. Augustine on September 29, 1565.

Expecting to be imprisoned or perhaps ransomed, the exhausted and hungry Frenchmen surrendered without a fight. They were ferried across the inlet to a group of dunes where they were fed what proved to be a last meal. At the Admiral's orders, between 111 and 200 of the French captives—documents differ on the exact number—were put to death. In his own report to King Philip, Admiral Menéndez wrote matter-of-factly, if not proudly, "I caused their hands to be tied behind them, and put them to the knife." Sixteen of the company were allowed to live—self-professed Catholics who were spared at the behest of the priest, who reported, "All the rest died for being Lutherans and against our Holy Catholic Faith."

Twelve days later, on October 11, the remaining French survivors, including Captain Jean Ribault, whose Trinité had been beached further south, straggled north to the same inlet. Met by Menéndez and ignorant of their countrymen's fates, they too surrendered to the Spanish. A handful escaped in the night, but on the next morning, 134 more French captives were ferried across the same inlet and executed once again, approximately a dozen were spared. Those who escaped death had either professed to be Catholic, hastily agreed to convert or possessed some skills that Admiral Menéndez thought might be useful in settling St. Augustine—the first permanent European settlement in the future United States, born and baptized in a religious bloodbath.

Although Jean Ribault offered Menéndez a large ransom to secure his safe return to France, the Spanish Admiral refused. Ribault suffered the same fate as his men. Following Ribault's execution, the French leader's beard and a piece of his skin were sent to King Philip II. His head was cut into four parts, set on pikes and displayed in St. Augustine. Reporting back to King Philip II, Admiral Menéndez wrote, "I think it great good fortune that this man be dead, for the King of France could accomplish more with him and fifty thousand ducats than with other men and five hundred thousand ducats and he could do more in one year, than another in ten . . . ."

Just south of modern St. Augustine, hidden off the well-worn tourist path of t-shirt stands, sprawling condos and beach-front hotels, stands a rather inconspicuous National Monument called Fort Matanzas. Accessible by a short ferry ride across a small river, it was built by the Spanish in 1742 to protect St. Augustine from surprise attack. Fort Matanzas is more a large guardhouse than full-fledged fort. The modest structure, about fifty feet long on each side, was constructed of coquina, a local stone formed from clam shells and quarried from a nearby island. Tourists who come across the simple tower certainly find it far less impressive than the formidable Castillo de San Marco, the star-shaped citadel that dominates St. Augustine's historic downtown.

Unlike other Spanish sites in Florida named for Catholic saints or holy days, the fort's name comes from the Spanish word, matanzas, for "killings" or "slaughters." Fort Matanzas stands near the site of the grim massacre of the few hundred luckless French soldiers in an undeclared war of religious animosity. This largely unremarked atrocity from America's distant past was one small piece of the much larger struggle for the future of North America among contending European powers.

The notion of Spaniards fighting Frenchmen in Florida four decades before England established its first permanent settlement in America, and half a century before the Pilgrims sailed, is an unexpected notion to those accustomed to the familiar legends of Jamestown and Plymouth. The fact that these first settlers were Huguenots dispatched to establish a colony in America in 1564, and motivated by the same sort of religious persecution that later drove the Pilgrims from England, may be equally surprising. That the mass execution of hundreds of French Protestants by Spanish Catholics could be mostly overlooked may be more surprising still. But this salient story speaks volumes about the rapacious quest for new territory and brutal religious warfare that characterized the European arrival in the future America.

Excerpted from America's Hidden History: Untold Tales of the First Pilgrims, Fighting Women, and Forgotten Founders Who Shaped a Nation, by Kenneth C. Davis. Copyright(c) 2008 by Kenneth C. Davis. By permission of Smithsonian Books, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers.


Herron Wins Bay In Sudden Death

For three days, all anyone wanted to know about Tim Herron was what he had for lunch and why they called him Lumpy. On Sunday, Herron showed his game was worth talking about, too.

Herron felt comfortable all week with his new driver. (AP)
Herron made clutch par putts down the stretch and won the Bay Hill Invitational with a birdie on the second playoff hole against Tom Lehman, giving the 29-year-old from Minnesota his third victory in four years on the PGA Tour.

Herron, who closed with an even-par 72 for 274, earned $450,000. It was the second time in which he had at least a share of the lead for all four rounds. He went wire-to-wire in the Honda Classic as a rookie in 1996.

After he and Lehman made pars on the first playoff hole at No. 18, Herron played the 511-yard 16th hole to perfection -- a booming drive down the fairway and a bold approach over the water to about 10 feet.

Lehman, playing only his second stroke-play event since a three-month layoff for shoulder surgery, hit into the bunker for the second time in less than an hour. He blasted through the fairway into the rough, hit over the green and made a 15-foot par putt from the fringe even before Herron lined up his eagle putt.

"I can't hang my head. I feel like I played well," Lehman said. "It feels good to be nervous again. Last week at Honda, I finished last. This was a lot more fun."

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Davis Love III can blame his putter for finishing one stroke out of the playoff at 275. One day after he made eight birdie putts, Love came up empty in his bid to win Arnold Palmer's tournament for the first time after three good chances.

He missed 4-foot birdie putts on three of the first four holes, missed an 8-footer on No. 16 and then missed a 10-foot par putt on No. 17 that knocked him out of a share of the lead. Love had a 30-foot birdie on the last hole that slid by on the right.

"I definitely lost some confidence with my putter," Love said. "I didn't get a lot of putts on line."

Robert Damron, who grew up at Bay Hill, holed a 35-foot birdie putt on the last hole for a 67 that left him alone in fourth at 276. He earned $120,000 the largest paycheck of his career.

That made it tough for anyone to make a run, and equally difficult for either Lehman, Herron or Love to build a lead bigger than one stroke. Left behind was a thrilling finish that brought a smile to Palmer's face as he watched from the 18th green.

Lehman, who started the day one stroke behind, caught Love and Herron with a birdie on No. 4 and took the lead with a 10-foot birdie putt on No. 8. While Lehman says his shoulder is about 80 percent, he was more concerned about the rust.

He didn't show any Sunday. Despite having not even been in contention for a full year, Lehman looked like the grinder who was the PGA Tour player of the year in 1996 when he won the British Open and the Tour Championship.

He made eight straight pars down the stretch, his only blip a bogey from the bunker on No. 17 that dropped him back into a share of the lead at 14-under.

That's where Love suffered his only bogey, not surprising since it was the toughest hole at Bay Hill. But it dropped him out of the lead, and while he made birdie at No. 18 in each of the first three rounds, he couldn't make the one he needed the most.

Herron was anything but steady, but he had the one club working that Love didn't -- his putter. Perhaps the biggest putt of the day came on the fourth hole when Herron sliced his drive out of bounds. He made a 12-footer to save bogey and keep a share of the lead, then made knee-knocking par putts in the 5-foot range five times to give himself a chance.

The only ones he missed proved to be pivotal -- a 6-foot birdie putt at No. 16 that would have given him the lead, and another 6-footer straight down the slope on the 72nd hole for the victory.

That was all forgotten when he tapped in for birdie on the second hole for the title.

    made eagles on the par-5 sixth and 16th holes, only the fifth time in Bay Hill history that a player has made two eagles in one round. The last player to do that was Mark MNulty in the first round of 1995.
  • For the first time in 14 regular PGA Tour events, dating to The Players Championship last year, Tiger Woods failed to break par in any of his four rounds. He had a 72 on Sunday.
  • The four Europeans in the field Sunday -- Colin Montgomerie , Ian Woosnam, Lee Westwood and Bernhard Langer -- all shot 79. was the only player to make birdie at No. 17 on Sunday.

©1999 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed

First published on March 18, 1999 / 8:30 PM

© 1999 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. The Associated Press contributed to this report.


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