Great Seal of Alexander III of Scotland

Great Seal of Alexander III of Scotland

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Alexander III, King of Scots 1249 – 1286

The reign of Alexander III was notable for three major things. Firstly he was to succeed where his father, Alexander II, had failed in ridding the Western Isles of Scotland of Norse influence. Secondly, he was to make one Scottish family so powerful that they would be a rival to the future kings of Scotland in influence. Thirdly, his death was to plunge Scotland into a succession crisis that would ultimately lead to war with England.

At the death of his father in 1249 Alexander was only eight years old. During his turbulent minority years Scotland was governed by rival factions that vied for influence. So bitter was the rivalry between the factions led respectively by the Earl of Mentieth and Alan Durward that at one point the infant king was kidnapped in an attempt to force a power-sharing arrangement.

In 1251 Alexander was married to Margaret, the daughter of King Henry III of England. Henry attempted to force his young son-in-law to recognise him as overlord of Scotland. Despite his youth, the young king refused. In 1262 Alexander took direct control of his kingdom and set to work where his father had left off.

Alexander made a formal claim that the Western Isles belonged to him alone. To back up his claim in 1262 Alexander sent a royal force to attack the Isle of Skye. This direct challenge to the Norwegian King did not go unnoticed.

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In 1263 King Haakon assembled a sizeable fleet and set sail for Scotland. Fearing defeat, Alexander arranged for negotiations to be held at Arran. With the autumnal weather changing for the worse, Alexander played for time as the talks floundered.

The plan worked and Haakon's fleet was caught in severe storms off the coast of Largs and badly damaged. While attempting to put ashore Haakon's men were attacked by a Scottish force.

Although the battle was indecisive it did thwart Haakon's plans to re-assert his dominance over the Western Isles. With winter setting in, Haakon headed for home. On the way, whilst stopping over at Kirkwall, Haakon became ill and died.

The next year Alexander pressed his case for sovereignty of the islands by invading the Western Isles. Haakon's successor to the Norwegian throne, Magnus, agreed to a treaty.

In 1266 the Treaty of Perth was signed. For a sum of money Alexander had gained control of the Western Isles and the Isle of Man. Norway retained control of the Orkney and Shetland Isles only. Alexander had succeeded where his father had fallen short.

By gaining the Western Isles, Alexander brought another powerbase within his reach. Dating back to the lifetime of Somerled (c.1113 – 1164) the islands off the west coast of Scotland had been a semi-autonomous region. Somerled himself styled himself the King of Hebrides.

With allegiances to the kings of Norway rather than the Scottish kings, the rulers of these islands were outside the influence of Alexander until his victory at the Battle of Largs.

Angus Mor MacDonald, a son of Somerled, in fact fought along side King Haakon at Largs. After the battle Angus accepted Alexander as his overlord and was allowed to keep his territories and independence.

The MacDonald clan would go on to accrue enough power, wealth and influence that they could even challenge future kings of Scotland. As self-styled Lords of the Isles they were a law unto themselves and a force to be reckoned with.

Alexander had other pressing matters to occupy him, however. His marriage to the daughter of Henry III of England, Margaret, had produced three children. By 1283 all had died leaving Alexander without a direct heir.

His eldest child, Margaret had married Eirik II of Norway and produced a child – also called Margaret. It was this child, commonly known as the Maid of Norway, that Alexander named as his heir-apparent.

In 1285, Alexander married again to Yolande de Dreux – a member of a powerful French family. The next year Alexander set off on horse back from Edinburgh Castle to meet his new queen in Fife. In bad weather the king and his party rode through the night. At some stage Alexander was separated from the others and went missing. The next morning he was found on the beach at Kinghorn. It is assumed he had fallen from his horse and died on the beach.

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At the time of Alexander's death his Queen, Yolande, had been pregnant. In a further tragedy, the child was still-born. With no other live heir Alexander's granddaughter, Margaret, the Maid of Norway, was assumed to be the next ruler of Scotland.

The problem was that not all the Scots nobles wanted the infant Norwegian princess as their queen. In fact there were some nobles who believed they should be the next ruler of Scotland in stead. Two of the most notable claimants were John Balliol and Robert Bruce – grandfather of his more famous namesake.

In protest at Norwegian efforts to gain agreement that Margaret should be queen, Bruce and his supporters rebelled, raiding territories in the south of the country. The rebellion was suppressed but it was clear that a solution had to be found to the succession crisis.

The Norwegians turned to the King of England, Edward I for help. Sensing a political advantage to be had, Edward assumed a position as kingmaker in the affairs of Scotland. Further, Edward planned to marry Margaret to his own son, Edward. The Scots, fearing that such a marriage would lead to Scotland ending up under English control agreed to accept Margaret as queen.

In 1290 the infant Margaret was dispatched from Norway. While on route to Scotland the child became sick and died. The question of Scottish succession was open again – and this time the King of England was involved.

The process of choosing the next ruler of Scotland would lead directly to deadly conflict with England in the Wars of Independence.

Alexander was born at Roxburgh, the only son of Alexander II by his second wife Marie de Coucy. [1] Alexander's father died on 8 July 1249 and he became king at the age of seven, inaugurated at Scone on 13 July 1249. [2]

The years of his minority featured an embittered struggle for the control of affairs between two rival parties, the one led by Walter Comyn, Earl of Menteith, the other by Alan Durward, Justiciar of Scotia. The former dominated the early years of Alexander's reign. At the marriage of Alexander to Margaret of England in 1251, Henry III of England seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage for the Scottish kingdom, but Alexander did not comply. In 1255 an interview between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso led to Menteith and his party losing to Durward's party. But though disgraced, they still retained great influence, and two years later, seizing the person of the king, they compelled their rivals to consent to the erection of a regency representative of both parties. [3]

On attaining his majority at the age of 21 in 1262, Alexander declared his intention of resuming the projects on the Western Isles which the death of his father thirteen years before had cut short. [3] He laid a formal claim before the Norwegian king Haakon. Haakon rejected the claim, and in the following year responded with a formidable invasion. Sailing around the west coast of Scotland he halted off the Isle of Arran, and negotiations commenced. Alexander artfully prolonged the talks until the autumn storms should begin. At length Haakon, weary of delay, attacked, only to encounter a terrific storm which greatly damaged his ships. The Battle of Largs (October 1263) proved indecisive, but even so, Haakon's position was hopeless. Baffled, he turned homewards, but died in Orkney on 15 December 1263. The Isles now lay at Alexander's feet, and in 1266 Haakon's successor concluded the Treaty of Perth by which he ceded the Isle of Man and the Western Isles to Scotland in return for a monetary payment. Norway retained Orkney and Shetland until 1469 when they became a dowry for James III's bride, Margaret of Denmark.

Alexander had married Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence, on 25 December 1251, when he was ten years old and she was eleven. [4] She died in 1275, after they had had three children. [5]

    (28 February 1261 – 9 April 1283), who married King Eric II of Norway[3] (21 January 1264 Jedburgh – 28 January 1284 Lindores Abbey) buried in Dunfermline Abbey
  1. David (20 March 1272 – June 1281 Stirling Castle) buried in Dunfermline Abbey

According to the Lanercost Chronicle, Alexander did not spend his decade as a widower alone: "he used never to forbear on account of season nor storm, nor for perils of flood or rocky cliffs, but would visit none too creditably nuns or matrons, virgins or widows as the fancy seized him, sometimes in disguise." [6]

Towards the end of Alexander's reign, the death of all three of his children within a few years made the question of the succession one of pressing importance. In 1284 he induced the Estates to recognize as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, the "Maid of Norway". The need for a male heir led him to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux [7] on 1 November 1285.

Alexander died in a fall from his horse while riding in the dark to visit the queen at Kinghorn in Fife on 19 March 1286 because it was her birthday the next day. [8] He had spent the evening at Edinburgh Castle celebrating his second marriage and overseeing a meeting with royal advisors. He was cautioned against making the journey to Fife because of weather conditions, but crossed the Forth from Dalmeny to Inverkeithing anyway. [9] On arriving in Inverkeithing, he insisted on not stopping for the night, despite the pleas of the nobles accompanying him and one of the burgesses of the town, Alexander Le Saucier. Le Saucier (who was either linked to the King's kitchen or the master of the local saltpans) must have been known to the King, since his rather blunt warning to the King lacks the usual deference: "My lord, what are you doing out in such weather and darkness? How many times have I tried to persuade you that midnight travelling will do you no good?" [10]

However, Alexander ignored the repeated warnings about travelling in a storm, and set off with his retinue and two local guides. [9] The king became separated from his party near Kinghorn, and was found dead with a broken neck near the shore the following morning. It is assumed that his horse lost its footing in the dark. While some texts say that he fell off a cliff, [11] there is none at the site where his body was found however, there is a very steep rocky embankment, which "would have been fatal in the dark." [12] After Alexander's death, his realm was plunged into a period of darkness that would eventually lead to war with England. He was buried in Dunfermline Abbey.

As Alexander left no surviving children, the heir to the throne was his unborn child by Queen Yolande. When Yolande's pregnancy ended, probably with a miscarriage, Alexander's three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, became the heir. Margaret died, still uncrowned, on her way to Scotland in 1290. The inauguration of John Balliol as king on 30 November 1292 ended the six years of the Guardians of Scotland governing the land.

The death of Alexander and the subsequent period of instability in Scotland was lamented in an early Scots poem recorded by Andrew of Wyntoun in his Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland.

Quhen Alexander our kynge was dede,
That Scotlande lede in lauche and le,
Away was sons of alle and brede,
Off wyne and wax, of gamyn and gle.
Our golde was changit into lede.
Crist, borne in virgynyte,
Succoure Scotlande, and ramede,

That is stade in perplexite. [13]

In 1886, a monument to Alexander III was erected at the approximate location of his death in Kinghorn. [14]

Alexander III has been depicted in historical novels. They include: [15]

Alexander III

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Alexander III, (born September 4, 1241—died March 18/19, 1286, near Kinghorn, Fife, Scotland), king of Scotland from 1249 to 1286, the last major ruler of the dynasty of kings descended from Malcolm III Canmore (reigned 1058–93), who consolidated royal power in Scotland. Alexander left his kingdom independent, united, and prosperous, and his reign was viewed as a golden age by Scots caught up in the long, bloody conflict with England after his death.

The only son of King Alexander II (reigned 1214–49), Alexander III was seven years old when he came to the throne. In 1251 he was married to Margaret (d. 1275), the 11-year-old daughter of England’s King Henry III. Henry immediately began plotting to obtain suzerainty over Scotland. In 1255 a pro-English party in Scotland seized Alexander, but two years later the anti-English party gained the upper hand and controlled the government until Alexander came of age the year 1262.

In 1263 Alexander repulsed an invasion by the Norwegian king Haakon IV, who ruled the islands along Scotland’s west coast. Haakon’s son, King Magnus V, in 1266 ceded to Alexander the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. Alexander was killed in 1286 when his horse fell over a cliff. Because his children were all dead, his infant grandchild Margaret “the Maid of Norway” (d. 1290) succeeded to the throne.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray, Editor.

17th century and Civil War

In 1618, the Earl of Holderness’s brother, George Ramsay, was created Lord Ramsay. His eldest son, William Ramsay, opposed the religious politics of Charles I. During the Civil War, William raised a regiment of cavalry and fought at the Battle of Marston Moor. He was also part of Sir David Leslie’s force at the Battle of Philiphaugh where the Marquis of Montrose was defeated.[2] Ramsay had been created Earl of Dalhousie in 1633.

In 1666 Sir Gilbert Ramsay of Bamff, descended from Neis de Ramsay, physician to Alexander II of Scotland around 1232, was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia.

Great Seal of Alexander III of Scotland - History

THE grandeur and antiquity of the great and illustrious name of HAY being suf∣ficiently set forth, and attested both by anci∣ent and modern historians, we shall only hint briefly at the traditional account of their ori∣gin, as it is handed down to us by many emi∣nent authors.

In the reign of king Kenneth III. the Danes having invaded Scotland, about the year 980, with a great and numerous army, were op∣posed by king Kenneth, who gave them battle near Loncartie, in Perthshire, where the Scots were worsted and fled.

In their flight through a narrow pass, they were met by a brave Scotsman, and his two sons, who were labouring their ground near by they stopt them, encouraged them to rally, telling them it was better and more honourable to die in the field, fighting for their king and their country, than to fly, and afterwards be killed by the merciless Danes: by thus upbraiding their cowardice, they were prevailed upon to stop.

There were many gallant men amongst them, who fled more from the desertion of their com∣panions, than want of courage They join∣ed the brave old man and his sons, stopt all the flyers, and soon got a considerable body of men together.

The father and his sons having only such arms as their ploughs furnished them with, led back their countrymen, who returned to the charge. They renewed the fight, fell upon the Danes, and made a most furious on∣set, crying aloud, Help is at hand. The Danes believing that a f • esh army had fallen on them, soon gave way, whereby the Scots obtained a compleat victory, and effectually freed their country from servitude.

The battle being over, the old man (after∣wards known by the name of Hay,) was brought to the king, who gave him and his sons, as a just reward of their valour and me∣rit, so much land on the side of the river Tay, in the Carse of Gowrie, as a falcon, set off a man's hand, should fly over before she settled. She flew over about six miles of ground in length, which was afterwards cal∣led Errol, and has been the possession and chief title of the Hays their successors ever since.

The king further promoted them to the order of the nobility, and assigned them a coat of arms, viz. argent, three se • tcheons, gules, to intimate that the father and the two sons had been the three fortunate shields of Scotland.

Thus all ancient Scotch authors: But

It appears from many histories, that there were families of the name of Hay, both in Italy and France, even before the aera of the battle of Loncarty. The late countess of Er∣rol, as head or chief of the Hays in Scotland, had some time ago a most elegant letter from the learned—Hay, archbishop of Marnis, wherein he mentions the above account of the battle of Loncarty, as a piece of history contained in the memoirs of the Hays in I∣taly but says, that the first of the Hays in Scotland and Italy came both from Armenia.

There are some other probable accounts of the origin of this noble family, with which we shall not trouble our readers here, but re∣fer to title, marquis of Tweeddale.

In the genealogical account of the family of Errol, it is said, that the name of the brave old man, at the battle of Loncarty, was Tho∣mas, afterwards sirnamed Hay that the name of his eldest son was Sereld Hay and the name of his second Achaius. These are said to be the first of the name of Hay in Scotland, and the ancestors of the Hays of Errol but as we have no authentic documents for the next three or four generations, we shall begin to deduce the descent of this noble family from certain authority, viz, original charters, and our public records.

I. WILLIAM de la HAYA, said to be li∣neally descended of the first Thomas, lived in the reign of king David I. who succeeded to the crown anno 1124, and died in 1153.

This William was a great man at the court of king Malcolm IV. * and is witness in many of his royal deeds, by the title of pincerna domini regis.

In king Malcolm's original charter to the abbacy of Scoon, * Willielmus de Haya, An∣drew bishop of Caithness, &c. are witnesses. The charter is without date, but granted inter 1153 et 1165, in which last year king Mal∣colm died.

He is witness also to an order or prohibiti∣on of the same prince, * that no person what∣soever shall molest or distress the abbot of Scoon, &c. ante 1165.

He married Julia or Juliana, sister of Ra∣nulphus de Soulis, * one of the most consider∣able families in Scotland at that time, by whom he had a son,

II. WILLIAM de HAYA, who succeeded him, and made no less a figure at the court Page 248 of king William than his father had done at that of king Malcolm.

He was a witness to that convention be∣twixt king Henry of England and king Wil∣liam of Scotland, * when the latter obtained his liberty, anno 1174.

He appears to have had large possessions in Perthshire, by the considerable donations made to the religious by him and his sons.

He gave a grant of some lands to the con∣vent of Cupar, which is confirmed by king William, * viz. Willielmus de Haya dedisse, &c. de terris de Edinpolis, Deo et sanctae Mariae, &c. pro salute animae Malcolmi regis, Ranul∣phi de Soulis, avunculi sui, &c.

This charter is also without date, but as comes Duncanus justiciarius is a witness, it must have been betwixt the years 1175 and 1180.

He obtained from the said king William a charter de terris de Herrol, * per suas rectas divisas, et cum omnibus justis pertinentiis, pro servitio duorum militum, with all the privi∣leges competent to a barony and as Hugo bishop of St. Andrews is a witness, it must have been betwixt 1178 and 1188, in which last year the bishop died.

He married Eva, * daughter of Alan, hosti∣arius domini regis, by whom he had issue six sons.

2. William de Haya, who made a dona∣tion to the convent of Cupar, pro salute ani∣mae suae, et Adae uxoris suae, necnon pro salute animae Willielmi de Haya patris, et Evae ma∣tris suae, * &c. of all the lands he had in the Carse, which he had got a domino Davide de Haya fratre suo, pro homagio et servitio, &c.

3. John, who was designed Johannes de Haya de Ardnaughton, in a donation he made Deo et sanctae Mariae, &c. de Cupro, of a yair on the river Tay, cum consensu Petri de Haya, filii sua, pro salute quondam Julianae de Lascells sponsae suae, * testibus domino Willielmo de Haya fratre suo, domino Gilberto de Haya nepote suo.

4. Thomas de Haya, who made a donation to the same abbay, of the right of fishing with one net upon the river Tay, and that pro sa∣lute animae regis Willielmi, Willielmi de Haya patris sui, * Evae matris suae, et Adae spon∣sae suae, &c. testibus domino Davide de Haya fratre suo, Roberto de Haya et Malcolmo de Haya fratribus suis, &c.

Both attested by the above donation.

William of Herrol died ante 1199, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

III. Sir DAVID de HAYA, who obtained from king William a charter of the lands and barony of Errol, wherein he is designed Da∣vid de Haya filius Willielmi, * &c. to be held by him as freely as his father held the same. The charter is dated at Jedburgh the 17th day of September, to which Hugo cancellari∣us is a witness, inter 1189 et 1199 in which last year the chancellor died.

He obtained from king Alexander II. a charter of confirmation of a charter, * granted quondam Willielmo de Haya patri dicti Davi∣dis, &c. The confirmation is without date but as Willielmus de Valoniis, camerarius re∣gis, is a witness to it, * it must have been in or before 1219 in which year the camerarius died.

He likeways obtained from the said king Alexander, a ratification of an agreement with William bishop of St. Andrews, about the lands and patronage of the church of Eccles∣dounan, with the same witnesses, * and of the same date of the above charter, viz. ante 1219.

He made a donation to the convent of Cupar, pro anima piae memoriae regis Wil∣lielmi, et pro anima Willielmi de Haya patris sui, et pro salute animae suae et Helenae sponsae suae, &c. This grant or donation is made with consent of Gilbert de Haya, * his eldest son and heir, and his two brothers Ro∣bert and Malcolm are witnesses to it.

The last deed in which sir David is menti∣oned, was an agreement with the abbot and convent of Scoon, about some disputed lands and tythes in the Carse of Gowrie, in which Gilbert his eldest son is mentioned, and sir John Hay knight, Malcolm de Hay, with ma∣ny other honourable persons are witnesses. The deed is dated anno 1237 * about which time sir David died, * having married Helen, daughter of Gilbert earl of Strathern, by whom he had issue two sons.

2. William, who obtained from king A∣lexander III. a charter, * confirming donationem illam quam Gilbertus de Haya fecit Willielmo de Haya sratri suo, duarum carucatarum terrae, &c. &c. in feodo de Errol, testibus Roberto de Mayners camerario, Eymero de Macus∣well, Johanne de Vallibus, Willielmo de Haw∣den, et Johanne de Herdmanistoun, apud Rokis∣burgh, 29no Aprilis, anno regni II. 1251.

This William was witness in two charters of Roger de Quincy, * and is designed frater Gilberti, &c. anno 1257.

He was ancestor of the Hays of Leys. Vide vol. II. of this work.

IV. Sir GILBERT de HAYA succeeded his father, and was designed dominus de Errol in Page 249 a donation, religiosis viris, abbati et conventui de Cupro, &c. pro salute animae suae et pro sa∣lute omnium antecessorum et successorum suorum to which donation his seal is appended, * cum Si∣gillo Nicolai de Haya, filii sui primogeniti, testi∣bus, episcopis Sti Andreae, Dunkeld, et multis aliis. This sir Gilbert it witness in a charter of king Alexander III. of a donation to the priory of St. Andrews, * anno regni secundo, anno do∣mini 1250.

He was one of the new council of state, * appointed by king Alexander III. anno 1255.

He married—Cummin, daughter of William earl of Buchan, * by whom he had issue two sons.

2. Sir John de Haya, * who is witness to a charter of Alexander de Moravia in 1281.

At this time there were so many different fa∣milies of the name of Hay in Scotland besides that of Errol, viz. Hays of Lochwarret, Leyes, Naughton, and others, that it is impossible when we meet with them in history to ascer∣tain what families they belong to, except those that are locally designed.

There are to be found in Rymer, and Prynne's collections, from the year 1291, to 1297, the following Hays, viz.

Sir John de Haya, miles, Prynne, vol. III. p. 650.

Nicolaus de Haya, dominus de Errol, miles, p. 651.

Gilbert de la Hay of the family of Errol, p. 651.

William de la Haya, Rymer and Prynne, p. 653.

Sir Gilbert Hay of Lochwarret, p. 659.

William de la Hay, de Drummannack, and Nichol de la Hay, p. 662. &c. &c.

Sir Gilbert was succeeded by his eldest son,

V. Sir NICOL de HAYA, * dominus de Er∣rol, who was one of the magnates Scotiae, who solemnly bound and obliged themselves to maintain and defend queen Margaret's title to the crown, against all mortals, anno 1284.

He was also one of the Scotch nobles, * that agreed to the marriage of Queen Margaret, with prince Edward of England, anno 1290.

He was likewise one of the arbiters chosen on the part of king Robert Bruce, * in the competition for the crown between him and Baliol, anno 1292 and every body knows how king Edward I. preferred the latter.

He afterwards got a charter from king John Baliol, erecting his lands of Errol, Inchyrach, Kinspindie, Dronlaw, Pethponts, Cassingray, and Fossy, in liberam warennam, (a free forestry.) The charter is dated at Lindores, 1st August, * the second year of his reign, an∣no domini, 1293. Testibus, John Cummin, earl of Buchan, constable of Scotland Alex∣ander Baliol, chamberlain Patrick de Gra∣ham, John de Soulis, Walter de Lindsay, militibus, &c.

He got also a charter from Donald earl of Mar, * of the lands and tenement of Dronlaw, to be held of the said Earl pro homagio et ser∣vitio. Testibus, domino Michaele Scott, Wil∣lielmo de Haya de Locherward, the abbots of Scoon and Cupar, &c. This charter is with∣out date, but by the witnesses, was ante 1295.

In 1302, die dominica, in octavis Sti Mar∣tini, * he transacts with Willielmus Auld bur∣gess of Perth, anent the recovery of what debts were then owing him, and obliges him∣self to give to the said William Auld, a third part of all that shall be recovered.

He gave to the abbot and convent of Cu∣par, in pure and perpetal alms, illam bovatam terrae in Carse, quam habet ex dono Rogeri fi∣lii Boderici, &c. To this donation Nicolaus his son, rector of the church of Fossenib, is a witness.

He died circa 1303, leaving issue by— three sons.

2. Nicolaus de Haya, rector of Fossenib as above.

3. Sir Hugh, * a great hero and patriot, who adhered always to the interest of king Robert Bruce.

VI. Sir GILBERT de HAYA, dominus de Errol, succeeded his father. He was man of singular merit and resolution, and a true lo∣ver of his country. * He was one of the first great barons of Scotland that joined king Ro∣bert Bruce, and never deserted his interest in all his viciss • tudes of fortune and though he had the misfortune to be made a prisoner by king Edward, * anno 1306, yet he soon re∣covered his liberty, and joined the loyalists.

King Robert no sooner had it in his pow∣er, than he began to reward his faithful ser∣vices, and in 1308, * constituted him con∣stable of Scotland, which office was then in the crown, by the forseiture of David de Strathbogie, earl of Athole for in a letter from the magnates Scotiae, to Philip the fair king of France, he is designed Gilbertus de Haya constabularius Scotiae, &c. 16th March 1308.

He is also designed constabularius Scotiae, * in a donation of king Robert to the abbacy of Page 250 Scoon, dated anno regni septimo. And be∣ing still more and more in favour with that great monarch, he was pleased to bestow the constabulary heretably to him and his heirs for ever, in feodo et haereditate cum hostilagiis (a lodging in every burgh where the parlia∣ment sits) ad dictian officiu •• pertinentibus, * &c. the charter is dated 12th November 1315.

He was one of the magnates Scotiae, * who signed that famous letter to the pope, assert∣ing the independency of this kingdom, anno 1320.

He was also one of the Scotch commission∣ers, * that swore to the keeping of a truce with the English, anno 1323.

In a charter, wherein king Robert confirms a donation of king Malcolm to the abbot and convent of Scoon, * dated the 20th of his reign, Sir Gilbert de Haya, constabularius Scotiae, * is a witness, anno 1326. He is also witness in a charter of king Robert's, anno regni 22 do. * And being a man equally qua∣lified for the cabinet and field, was often em∣ployed by that great prince in foreign nego∣ciations, which he always managed with pru∣dence and dexterity.

He survived his majesty king Robert Bruce, and was no less faithful to his son king Da∣vid, * but had the misfortune to be killed in the service of his country, at the fatal battle of Halidon-hill, on the 19th July 1333, leaving issue a son and succcessor,

VII. Sir DAVID de HAYA, dominus de Errol, constabularius Scotiae.

In a charter of king David II. * confirming a donation of Margaret countess of Angus, de terris de Brakie, &c. to the abbacy of Ar∣broath, David de Haya, constabularius Scotiae, and many others are witnesses. The charter is dated at Scoon, ultimo die Octobris, anno regm 15 to, * anno dom. 1344.

He was killed at the battle of Durham, where his royal master was taken prisoner, on 16th October 1346.

He married—daughter and sole heiress of sir John Keith of Innerpessre, * by whom he had a son,

VIII. Sir THOMAS HAY of Errol, who succeeded him, * and was one of the commissi∣oners appointed to treat with the English a∣bout king David's liberty, anno 1353 and af∣terwards one of the hostages for his ransom.

He enters into a transaction with sir John Fenton of that ilk, * wherein Thomas de Haya, constabularius Scotiae, obliges himself to sease and invest the said sir John in a twenty-merk land, within the barony of Slains, &c. The deed is dated on the Vigil of Pentecost, 1368, in presence of Sir William Keith marishal of Scotland, sir John Hay of Tilliebothil, and many others.

He acted as lord high constable of Scotland in the parliament, * where the earl of Carrick's right of primogeniture, and title to the crown, was acknowledged and recognized, anno 1371.

In the year 1385, * there were forty thou∣sand francs sent by the king of France, to be divided amongst his friends and allies the Scots, of which this sir Thomas got four hundred.

He married lady Elizabeth Stewart, * daugh∣ter of king Robert II. and obtained from that prince a charter, carissimo filio suo, Thomae de Haya, constabulario nostro Scotiae, illas cen∣tum libratas terras cum pertinentibus in tene∣mento de Slains, * in vic. de Aberdene, quas re∣colendae memoriae dominus, avus et predecessor noster, Robertus, Dei gratia rex Scotorum, quon∣dam Gilberto de Haya haereditarie dedit et con∣cessit, &c. Sir Thomas, upon his own re∣signation, gets all his lands de novo erected and united in unam integram et liberam baroni∣am, &c. apud Dundee, ultimo die Junii, an∣no regni septimo, anno dom. 1378. He was served heir to his grandfather, umquhil sir John Keith of Innerpeffre, per brieve in the archives of the family, dated 19th January, 1389.

By the said lady Elizabeth Stewart, he had issue, two sons and two daughters.

2. Sir Gilbert Hay of Dronlaw. In a charter by sir William Hay of Errol, * of the lands of Urie to his son William in 1430, this Gilbert, who is a witness, is designed fra∣ter domini Willielmi, &c.

1st daughter, * Elizabeth, married to sir George Lesly of Rothes, who, in a charter of king Robert III. to this sir George, is de∣signed his well-beloved niece, &c.

2.—married to John Leslie, * son and heir apparent of Andrew Leslie of that ilk.

He died in an advanced age, anno 1406, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

IX. * Sir WILLIAM HAY of Errol, who obtained from king Robert III. in his father's lifetime, a grant dilecto nepoti suo Willielmo de Haya, filio et haeredi domini Thomae de Haya, wherein he promises to his nephew, not to ra∣tify or approve of any alienations to be made by sir Thomas his father, from the date there∣of, without consent of the said William, and the king's council, &c. The charter is dat∣ed 19th March, the third year of the king's reign.

He obtained from Robert duke of Albany, Page 251 governor of Scotland, a discharge and acquit∣tance, &c. carissimo nepoti suo, Willielmo de Haya de Errol, constabulario Scotiae, relevium suum nobis debitum de omnibus terris suis, * quas de domino rege tenet in capite ubicunque, per mortem domini Thomae Haya patris sui nuper defuncti, dated at Perth 3rd August 1406.

He was named one of the hostages for king James, when he was coming to Scotland, an∣no 1421.

He was one of the commissioners appoint∣ed to treat with the English about the king's redemption, * anno 1423. He is then designed dominus de Errol et de Hay, and became one of the hostages for his ransom. *

He had the honour of knighthood confer∣red upon him at the king's coronation, anno 1424, was created a lord of parliament in 1427, * and was appointed one of the wardens of the marches, anno 1430.

He died ante 1436, and had issue two sons.

1. Gilbert, his apparent heir.

2. William, * to whom he gave the lands of Urie, to him and the heirs of his body which failing, to return to the family.

X. GILBERT his eldest son, * went to England an hostage for Murdoch duke of Al∣bany, anno 1412, and is then designed filius et haeres apparens domini Hay constabularii Scotiae, &c.

He afterwards went a hostage to England for king James I.'s ransom, anno 1424, and died there, his father being still alive.

He married Alicia, daughter of sir William Hay of Yester, * who got a safe conduct from the king of England to go up to her husband, anno 1426, and by her he had a son,

XI. WILLIAM, who succeeded his fa∣ther in 1436, * and got charters, under the great seal, of a vast many lands, Willielmo do∣mino Hay de Errol, inter 1436 et 1446.

Amongst the archives of this family, there is a writ or instrument, whereby it appears, that this sir William, lord Hay of Errol, ob∣tained the patronage of the church of Turresf in Buchan, * in lieu of the patronage of the church of Errol, which, the instrument says, had been insidiously wrested from sir William Hay of Errol, his grand-father, ( avus suus,) &c. The deed is dated anno 1446.

He grants a charter, * de terris de Achmore, to sir David Hay of Yester, his uncle, ( avun∣culo suo, ) anno 1452.

This William lord Hay of Errol being, like many of his brave ancestors, a man of e∣minent loyalty, and in high savour with his majesty king James II. was, in consideration of his great merit and faithful services, * raised to the dignity of earl of Errol, anno 1452.

In March 1453, he accepts of a resignati∣on of the lands of Urie, from his uncle Wil∣liam Hay, in which he is designed comes de Errol.

He was one of the Scotch commissioners that concluded a treaty with the English, * anno 1457, and is then designed Willielmus comes Erroliae, constabularius Scotiae, &c.

He ratifies and confirms a deed and grant to William Hay of Urie, * by Alan Kinnaird of that ilk, apud castrum de Slains, 15th March 1470.

He married Beatrix Douglas, daughter of James lord Dalkeith, * by whom he had issue three sons, and two daughters.

2. William, who succeeded his brother.

1st daughter, * lady Elizabeth, married, 1st, to Patrick, son and apparent heir of Andrew lord Gray 2dly, to George lord Gordon, afterward earl of Huntly, per an obligation granted by William earl of Errol, her brother, * to George earl of Huntly, her husband.

2. Lady Margaret, * married to William Fraser of Philorth, ancestor of lord Salton, per a writ, wherein she is designed sister of William earl of Errol.

The earl died in 1470, and the countess, his widow, made a donation to the convent of Gray-friars in Dundee, which bears, per nobilem et potentem dominam Beatricem Dou∣glas, relictam quondam Willielmi comitis de Errol, * pro salute animae suae, et pro animabus quondam Willielmi comitis de Errol, sponsi sui, et Willielmi comitis de Errol filii sui, dated 25th November 1482.

XII. NICOL, second earl of Errol, suc∣ceeded his father in 1470. * He was one of the privy council to king James III. and was appointed one of the commissioners to treat of a peace with England, anno 1472.

He got charters under the great seal, * Ni∣colao comiti Erroliae et Elizabethae comitissae, terrarum de Cassilis, &c. &c. inter 1470 et 1476.

He married lady Elizabeth Gordon, * daugh∣ter of Alexander earl of Huntly but died without issue, on 6th January 1476, and was succeeded by his brother,

XII. WILLIAM, * third earl of Errol, who, in an instrument taken on an obligation grant∣ed by Alexander Ogilvy of Auchterhouse, sheriss of Angus, is designed Willielmus comes de Errol, on 5th December 1476.

He married, 1st, lady Isabel Gordon, daugh∣ter Page 252 of George earl of Huntly, * by whom he had issue three sons, and one daughter.

2. Thomas Hay of Logyalmond, whose son succeeded to the earldom, of whom af∣terwards. *

His daughter, lady Beatrix, married to Alex∣ander Keith, son and apparent heir of sir Wil∣liam Keith of Innerugie.

The earl married, 2dly, lady Elizabeth Leslie, daughter of George earl of Rothes, * by whom he had one daughter,

Lady Mariana, * married to David Lindsay, son and apparent heir of sir Alexander Lind∣say of Auchtermonzie, afterwards earl of Crawfurd.

He died about 1490, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

XIII. WILLIAM, fourth earl of Errol, who was a man of eminent qualities, great honour and probity.

As an instance of the high estimation he was held in abroad, * he had a letter sent him by Pope Alexander VI. notifying his election to the popedom, dated 7mo. calendas Septem∣bris, anno 1492.

He was sheriff of Aberdeen, and had great dependencies, * and bonds of manrent, from some of the principal families in the country.

He died in 1506, having married lady Ja∣net, daughter of John Stewart earl of Athole, * by lady Margaret his spouse, daughter of Ar∣chibald earl of Douglas, and duke of Turenne, by whom he had a son and successor,

XIV. WILLIAM, fifth earl of Errol, who, in his father's lifetime, was designed William of Caputh, and master of Errol.

He obtained from king James IV. * a gift of the ward and relief due to the crown by the decease of his father, dated 18th January 1507, and was served heir to his father in the lands of Petponts, * on 21st September that same year.

He got charters under the great seal of se∣veral lands and baronies, * inter 1510 et 1513.

He married Elizabeth, daughter of Willi∣am, first lord Ruthven, by whom he had a son,

William, his heir,—and two daugh∣ters.

1. Lady Marian, * married to William earl of Crawfurd.

2. Lady Isabel, * married to sir William Forbes of Tolquhon.

He, with a great many of his friends, and almost all the gentlemen of his name, accom∣panied king James IV. to the battle of Flow∣don, where they all lost their lives, with their royal master, on 9th September 1513.

He was succeeded by his son,

XV. WILLIAM, * 6th earl of Errol, who, according to Mr. Calderwood's church-histo∣ry, was a man of great parts, integrity and merit.

He was one of the commissioners sent to France, to endeavour to get the Scots in∣cluded in their treaty with the English, anno 1515.

He was also, * with some others, sent by the estates of Scotland to the king of Eng∣land, with their refusal to comply with his desire, in removing the duke of Albany from the guardianship of their young king, anno 1516.

There are several charters under the great seal, * Willielmo comiti Erroliae, et Helenae comi∣tissae, of many lands and baronies, inter 1520 et 1535.

He married lady Helen Stewart, * daughter of John earl of Lennox, by whom he had a son,

William, who died before himself, with∣out issue,—and a daughter.

Lady Jean Hay, who became heir of line of this illustrious family, of whom more here∣after.

The earl dying, without any surviving male issue, before the year 1535, in him ended the male-line of the body of William fourth earl of Errol, eldest son of the third earl. The earldom, constabulary, &c. there∣fore devolved upon George, son of Thomas Hay of Logyalmond, before mentioned, to whom we now return.

XIII. THOMAS HAY, second son of Willi∣am third earl of Errol, got the estate of Lo∣gyalmond, by marrying Margaret Logie heir∣ess thereof. In a charter of king James IV. of the lands and barony of Logyalmond, to him et Margaretae dominae de Logyalmond his spouse, * he is designed Thomas de Hay, filius dilecti consanguinei nostri Willielmi comitis de Errol.

XIV. GEORGE, who succeeding to the earl∣dom of Errol, as before observed, was the se∣venth earl, and obtained from king James V. a charter under the great seal, of the whole estate and heretable constabulary, as next heir∣male to William the last earl. The narrative bears, that the king was desirous that the earldom of Errol, and constabulary of Scot∣land, should remain and continue haeredibus masculis, cum cognominibus de Hay, in omni∣bus Page 253 temporibus futuris, prout fuerunt temporibus elapsis. * The charter is dated 13th Decem∣ber 1541.

This earl, while he was laird of Logyal∣mond, married, 1st, Margaret, daughter of sir Alexander Robertson of Strowan, * by whom he had four sons and two daughters.

2. John, * who succeeded to the ancient fa∣mily of the Hays of Muchils.

3. George Hay of Ardlethan. *

4. Mr. Thomas Hay, * parson of Turreff in Buchan.

1st daughter, Lady Elizabeth, was marri∣ed to William Keith, * son and heir of William, sourth earl Marischal, and was mother of George the fifth earl.

2. Lady Margaret, * married to Laurence master of Oliphant.

He got charters under the great seal, Geor∣gio de Logyalmond * then Georgio comiti Er∣roliae, of the lands and barony of Slains, and many others, inter 1532 et 1545.

He married, 2dly, Helen, daughter and co∣heiress of Walter Bryson of Pitcullen, * in vic. de Perth, by whom he had one daughter.

Lady Jean, married, 1st, to John Leslie of Balquhain 2dly, to sir James Balfour, bro∣ther to Michael first lord Burleigh, who was himself created Lord Glenaly in Ireland by king James VI.

This earl died anno 1563, and was suc∣ceeded by his eldest son,

XV. ANDREW, eighth earl of Errol, who married the fore-mentioned lady Jean Hay, only daughter and heiress of William, sixth earl of Errol, * whereby the heirs-male and of line of this noble family were united, the king himself having been a great promoter of this marriage.

In his father's lifetime he got charters, un∣der the great seal, * Andreae magistro Erroliae, of the lands of Slains, Errol, &c. &c. inter 1552 et 1560, and got afterwards charters of other lands, Andreae com. Erroliae, inter 1570 et 1577.

By the said lady Jean he had issue, three sons and one daughter.

1. Alexander, who died before his father without issue.

3. Thomas, who died without issue.

Their daughter, lady Eleanor, married to Alexander earl of Linlithgow.

The earl married, 2dly, lady Agnes Sin∣clair, * daughter of George earl of Caithness, by whom he had a son,

Sir George Hay of Killour, whose grandson succeeded to the earldom as heir-male, as will be shown afterwards.

This earl was one of the privy council to queen Mary, to whom he was always a faith∣ful and loyal subject.

He died in 1585, and was succeeded by his son,

XVI. FRANCIS, ninth earl of Errol, who was a man of great probity and merit. He always continued sirm in the Roman Catho∣lic religion, on which account he suffered greatly his houses were demolished, his lands plundered, and himself imprisoned.

He got charters under the great seal, Fran∣cisco comiti Erroliae, * of several lands, inter 1586 et 1592.

He, with lord Huntly, were the chief com∣manders at the memorable battle of Glenlivet, where he behaved with remarkable courage and intrepidity, and defeated the king's troops under the command of the earl of Argyle, * who were far superior in numbers, anno 1594.

However, he was after wards reconciled to the court, and got much into favour with king James VI. who appointed him one of the commissioners to treat of an union with England, * anno 1604.

He married, 1st, lady Anne Stewart, * daugh∣ter of John earl of Athole 2dly, lady Mar∣garet Stewart, second daughter and co-heiress of James earl of Murray the regent, * but had no issue by either.

He married, 3dly, lady Elizabeth Douglas, daughter of William earl of Morton, by whom he had three sons and eight daughters.

2. George, who died at Avignon in France.

3. Francis, who got a charter under the great seal, anno 1630, but died in 1631, with∣out issue.

1st daughter, lady Anne, married to George second earl of Winton.

2. Lady Christian, married to John earl of Mar.

3. Lady Elizabeth, married, 1st, to Hugh lord Semple 2dly, to James lord Mording∣ton.

4. Lady Mary, married to Walter earl of Buckcleugh.

5. Lady Sophia, married to John Gordon viscount of Melgum, son of George marquis of Huntly.

The last three died unmarried.

The earl dying on 14th July 1631, was succeeded by his eldest son,

XVII. WILLIAM, tenth earl of Errol, who having been brought up at court, and Page 254 educated in the protestant religion, was in great favour with king Charles I.

He acted as constable in Scotland, at his coronation in the abbay of Holyroodhouse, on 18th June 1633.

He lived in so splendid and grand a man∣ner, that he brought great incumbrances on the family, which obliged them to sell their old paternal estate in the Carse of Gowrie, reserving only some superiorities, which are still in the family.

He married lady Anne Lyon, daughter of Patrick earl of Kinghorn, by whom he had a son,

Gilbert, his heir,—and a daughter,

Lady Margaret, married, 1st, to Henry lord Ker, son and heir of Robert first earl of Roxburgh 2dly, to John earl of Cassilis, who was lord privy seal in the reign of king Charles I.

He died anno 1636, and was succeeded by his son,

XVIII. GILBERT, eleventh earl of Errol, who was too young to be engaged in the be∣ginning of the troubles of king Charles I. 's reign, but was a staunch loyalist, had a pen∣sion settled on him in 1639 was colonel of horse for Aberdeenshire for duke Hamil∣ton's engagement, * anno 1648 and none ap∣peared more forward and zealous for a re∣storation than he did, to which he contribut∣ed all that was in his power.

He waited on the king at Aberdeen, was most graciously received, and raised a regi∣ment for his majesty's service on his own charges.

King Charles II. being perfectly sensible of his loyalty, constituted him one of his privy council, anno 1661, and he always behaved with prudence, candour and mode∣deration.

He married lady Catharine Carnegy, daugh∣ter of James earl of Southesk, by whom he had no issue.

Upon which he made a resignation of his whole estates, honours, dignities, heretable constabulary, &c. in favours of himself, and the heirs-male of his body which sailing, to sir John Hay of Killour, his cousin and near∣est heir-male, and the heirs-male of his body which failing, to his own nearest and lawful heirs what somever upon which a charter was past and expede under the great seal, * anno 1674.

He dying without issue that same year, the male-line of the • irst marriage of Andrew eighth earl of Errol thus ended, and the estate and honours devolved upon the next heir-male, viz. sir John Hay of Killour, lineally descended from sir George before mentioned, to whom we now return.

XVI. Sir GEORGE HAY of Killour, only son of the second marriage of Andrew, eighth earl of Errol, married Elizabeth, daughter of sir Patrick Cheyne of Eslemont, an ancient fa∣mily in the shire of Aberdeen, by whom he had a son and successor,

XVII. Sir ANDREW HAY of Killour, who married Margaret, daughter of Patrick Kin∣naird of Inchture, sister of George first lord Kinnaird, by whom he had a son,

Sir John Hay of Killour, who succeeded to the earldom of Errol, as before observed.

XVIII. JOHN, twelfth earl of Errol, (for∣merly sir John of Killour) married lady Anne Drummond, daughter of James earl of Perth, by whom he had three sons and two daugh∣ters.

All these sons died without issue.

1st daughter, lady Mary, who succeeded to the earldom of Errol.

2. Lady Margaret, who carried on the line of this family, as will be shown hereafter.

Earl John died anno 1705, and was suc∣ceded by his eldest son,

XIX. CHARLES, thirteenth earl of Errol, a man of singular honour and probity.

In the parliament 1706, he opposed the union with all his power and interest, as be∣lieving it derogatory to the honour and inde∣pendency of Scotland, and entered a solemn protest against it, which still remains upon re∣cord, viz.

"I Charles earl of Errol, heretable lord high chancellor of Scotland, do hereby protest, that the office of high constable, with all the rights and privileges of the same belonging to me heretably, and de∣pending upon the monarchy, sovereignty, and ancient constitutions of this kingdom, may not be prejudiced, &c. &c. &c. "

In the year 1708, he was made prisoner on account of the French invasion and, tho' in a bad state of health, was kept closs con∣fined in the castle of Edinburgh till the affair was over.

He never married, died in 1717, and was succeeded by his eldest sister,

XIX. Lady MARY, countess of Errol, el∣dest daughter of John the twelfth earl, who married Alexander, son of sir David Falconer,

Page 255 lord president of the session, anno 1682, and brother of Alexander lord Falconer of Halker∣toun.

But she dying without issue, anno 1758, the estate and honours devolved upon James lord Boyd, grand-son of her sister,

XIX. Lady MARGARET HAY, second daughter of John twelfth earl of Errol, be∣fore mentioned, who married James earl of Linlithgow and Calendar, to whom she had only one daughter,

XX. Lady ANNE LIVINGSTON, un∣doubted heir of line of the noble and antient family of the Livingstons, earls of Linlithgow and Calendar, who married William earl of Kilmarnock, to whom she had issue three sons.

XXI. JAMES lord Boyd, eldest son of la∣dy Anne Livingston, only child of lady Mar∣garet Hay, second daughter of John twelsth earl of Errol, upon the death of Mary coun∣tess of Errol, without issue, succeeded to the estate and honours, as before noticed, and is the fourteenth earl of Errol.

He married Miss Rebecca Lockhart, eldest daughter of Alexander Lockhart, Esq an e∣minent councillor at law, and brother of George Lockhart of Carnwath, Esq by whom he hath one daughter,

Argent, three escutcheons, gules.

CREST on a wreath, a falcon proper.

SUPPORTERS two men in country ha∣bits, each ho ding an ox-yoke over his shoul∣der.

Great Seal of Alexander III of Scotland - History

ALL our historians and antiquaries agree, that the progenitors of this noble fa∣mily are originally from Flanders that a man of rank came from that country in the beginning of the reign of king David I. set∣tled in Scotland, and was called Le Flammang, from the country from whence he came which afterwards was pronounced Fleming, and from hence the sirname of the family.

It appears from our histories that for some time they were promiscuously designed Flan∣drenses, Flamang, Le Flamang, and De Fla∣maticus, &c. * and after they had assumed Fle∣ming for their sirname, that in Latin was cal∣led Flandrensis.

The first of them we find mentioned in any record is,

I. BALDOWINUS le FLAMANG, who is witness in a grant of Robert bishop of St. Andrews, * to Herbert bishop of Glasgow, of the church of Locherworna, &c. in the reign of king David I. who succeeded to the crown of Scotland, anno 1128, and died in 1153.

II. JORDANUS le FLAMANG, who, in the reign of king Malcolm IV. is witness in a do∣nation-charter of Ada comitissa, * to the mo∣nastery of Dunfermline, pro salute animae suae, &c. Ada comitissa was wife of Henry earl of Northumberland, and died in 1178.

This Jordanus appears to have been much about the court of king William, is witness to many of his charters, * and was taken prisoner with him at the battle of Alnwick, anno 1174.

III. WILLIELMUS FLANDRENSIS, or le Flamang, who flourished in the reigns of king William and king Alexander II. and was the first of this family that settled in the Western parts of Scotland.

In a deed of king William to the mona∣stery of Kelso, * Willielmus Flandrensis, Huge cancellarius, Patricius comes, &c. are wit∣nesses, before the year 1199, in which year the chancellor died.

He is witness to another charter of the same prince, * confirming the teinds of Linlithgow to the nuns of Manuel, before the year 1214, in which king William died.

In a donation of Richard le Bard, to the monastery of Kelso, * confirmed by king Alexan∣der II. Willielmus Flamang is a witness, anno 1228.

In the end of the reign of king Alexander II. and beginning of king Alexander III. we find in Scotland several of the sirname of Fle∣ming, or de Flandrensis, whom we cannot pre∣tend to connect with one another, besides sir Malcolm, progenitor of this family, of whom afterwards, viz.

Dominus Duncanus Flandrensis, * who is wit∣ness to the donation of the lands of Halding∣ston to the monastery of Paisley, confirmed by king Alexander II. who died anno 1249.

Also Simon Flandrensis, who is mentioned in the resignation which Johannes filius Rogeri made to the monks of Paisley, * of the lands of Auldhouse, &c. afterwards confirmed by king Alexander III. &c. &c. &c.

IV. Sir MALCOLM, first designed Flan∣drensis, but afterwards Fleming, which hath ever since continued to be the sirname of the family.

In a donation of Walter lord high steward of Scotland, of the church of Largyss, to the monastery of Paisley, * Malcolmus Flandrensis is a witness, in or before 1246, in which year Walter the high steward died.

This sir Malcolm was a man of great di∣stinction in the west of Scotland, had the ho∣nour of knighthood conferred upon him, and was appointed sheriff of Dunbarton by king Alexander III.

In a confirmation-charter of Malcolm (first of that name) earl of Lennox, of the lands of Luss, * to Malcolm son of John de Luss, Mal∣colmus vicecomes de Dunbarton, et Hugo Fle∣ming milites, are witnesses. The charter has no date, but appears to have been granted before the year 1280. Whether this sir Hugh was brother of sir Malcolm, we cannot pre∣tend to determine but the Flemings were become numerous in Scotland before the reign of king Robert Bruce, there being no less than eight of that sirname to be found swear∣ing allegiance to king Edward I. of England, * anno 1296 and that besides sir William Fle∣ming of Barochan, who is witness in a char∣ter of Malcolm earl of Lennox, * of the lands of Dalquharne, to Walter Spruel, in the end of the reign of king Alexander III. The same sir William of Barochan is witness also to a donation of Colin, * son of sir Gillespic Camp∣bell, ancestor of the duke of Argyle, anno 1293. And William Fleming is to be found swearing fealty to king Edward of England, * anno 1304.

Page 694 Sir Malcolm was succeeded by his son,

V. Sir ROBERT FLEMING, a great hero and patriot. * He was one of the Scotch nobles who wrote to king Edward I. of England, con∣cerning the marriage of queen Margaret with his son prince Edward, anno 1290.

And though he, with many of his coun∣trymen, had been compelled to swear allegi∣ance to king Edward I. of England, yet as he believed a forced oath was not binding, he was amongst the first men of rank in the kingdom that joined king Robert Bruce, in defence of the liberties of his country, was with him at Dumfries, * when the Cummin was dispatched for betraying him, and was very instrumental in getting the crown set upon that great man's head, anno 1306.

Sir Robert being deservedly in great favour, and highly esteemed by king Robert Bruce, obtained from him, for his many faithful ser∣vices, grants of several lands, particularly the lordship of Lenzie, * and barony of Cumber∣nauld, then in the crown, by the forfeiture of the Cummins.

2. Sir Patrick Fleming of Biggar, who car∣ried on the line of this family, of whom after∣wards.

This great man died before the year 1314, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

VI. Sir MALCOLM FLEMING, designed of Fulwood and Cumbernauld, a man of sin∣gular honour and integrity, who, on account of his own merit, * and the great services of his worthy father, obtained from his majesty a new grant of the whole lands and barony of Kirkintulloch, in Dunbartonshire, which formerly belonged to sir John Cummin, knight, by his royal charter, dated anno 1314.

He got another charter under the great seal, * of the lands and barony of Auchindoun, in the same county, upon the resignation of sir Malcolm Drummond of that ilk, anno 1316.

He obtained also from Walter lord high steward of Scotland, * an annuity out of the barony of Kers, by a charter dated on the feast of St. Dunstan, anno 1321.

He was likeways, by his majesty, appoint∣ed high sheriff of the county, * and governor of the castle of Dunbarton which offices he executed with great fidelity.

He died in the end of the reign of king Robert Bruce, and left issue a son,

VII. Sir MALCOLM FLEMING of Cum∣bernauld, who succeeded him, and inherited all the virtues of his worthy ancestors, was a firm and steady friend of the royal family * and in the beginning of the reign of king David Bruce, was constituted governor of Dunbarton castle in which office he did his country signal service.

This sir Malcolm's capacity and integrity being well known to the whole nation, he was intrusted with the tuition of the young king.

After the unfortunate battles of Duplin and Halidonhill, when the Baliol's party be∣gun to prevail and increase, the governor and estates of the nation thought it adviseable to send his majesty and his royal consort to France, for the more security of their persons, and the faithful sir Malcolm was pitched upon to be their conductor which important charge he executed with dexterity and success. * They arrived safe in France, and met with a most noble and kind reception from king Philip.

Sir Malcolm immediately returned to his government and command of the castle of Dunbarton, which he nobly defended, ahd kept out against the whole Baliol party, when almost every other fort in the kingdom had fur∣rendered to them * so that it became the only asylum and safe retreat for the loyalists during the absence of king David.

The guardians of Scotland, having at last re∣covered a great part of the nation to the king's obedience, longed much to have his majesty again amongst them. The brave sir Mal∣colm Fleming was thought the fittest man in the kingdom to be employed in that great trust. He went to France accordingly. He again performed his office with prudence and fidelity, * and had the good fortune to conduct his majesty safe back to Scotland in July 1342.

King David was no sooner in possession of his kingdom, than he begun to reward his faithful servants. He created sir Malcolm Fleming earl of Wigton, and bestowed upon him all the lands belonging to that earldom, to him and the heirs male of his body, * &c. by his royal charter, dated at Air, 9th No∣vember 1342 and as this charter, which contains many clauses very honourable for the family, is fully narrated in Crawfurd's peer∣age, page 493, to that we refer our readers.

In the beginning of the year 1346, he made a donation to the monastery of Newbottle, * pro salute animae suae, &c. to which Duncan and Walter Flemings were witnesses.

This noble earl accompanied king David in his unfortunate expedition into England, was taken prisoner with him at the battle of Durham, * anno 1346 was for some time con∣fined Page 695 in the tower of London, but was re∣leased soon afterwards, and was very instru∣mental in forming embassies for procuring his royal master's liberty, which at last was hap∣pily accomplished in the year 1357 the earl himself being then one of the Scotch com∣missioners who managed that important ne∣gotiation. *

VIII.—, his apparent heir, whose Christian name is not come to our knowlege, but he died before the year 1351, leaving issue a son,

The old earl died about the year 1362, and was succeeded in his estate and honours by his grandson,

IX. THOMAS, second earl of Wigton. He was one of the noble Scotch heirs proposed to be sureties for king David's liberty, in the year 1351, and is then designed nepos et hae∣res comitis de Wigton * but that negotiation took no effect.

He was afterwards sent to England one of the hostages for his majesty's ransom, * and is still designed grandson and apparent heir of Malcolm earl of Wigton, anno 1358.

After the death of his grandfather, he got a charter, under the great seal from king Da∣vid II. totius comitatus de Wigton, cum perti∣nen. to be holden, and possessed as fully and freely by this Thomas earl of Wigton, as the same was granted to, and enjoyed by the deceased Malcolm earl of Wigton, * his grand∣father, &c. The charter is dated 26th Ja∣nuary, the 37th year of his reign, anno 1366.

This earl having no lawful children, and being very sensible that in consequence of the king's royal grant of the earldom of Wigton, failing lawful male issue of his body, that earldom must return to the crown: he there∣fore, and on account of the seuds subsisting betwixt him and the great men of that earl∣dom (as the deed bears) fells and dispones to Archibald Douglas, lord of Galloway, for the sum of five hundred pounds sterling, the whole foresaid earldom, with its pertinents, by his charter thereof, * dated 16th February 1371, which was afterwards ratified and con∣firmed to the earls of Douglas, * by many char∣ters under the great seal.

Immediately thereafter, the earl resigned his baronies of Lenzie, Cumbernauld, and se∣veral others of his lands, in favours of his cousin and heir-male, sir Malcolm Fleming of Biggar, which were also ratified and confirm∣ed by charters under the great seal, as will be shown hereafter.

This earl dying without lawful issue, in him ended the male line of sir Malcolm of Cumbernauld, eldest son of the said sir Ro∣bert Fleming. The representation, therefore, of this noble family devolved upon sir Mal∣colm Fleming of Biggar, son of sir Patrick, before mentioned, to whom we now return.

VI. Sir PATRICK FLEMING, second son of sir Robert, and brother german of the first sir Malcolm of Cumbernauld, was likeways a faithful and steady friend of king Robert Bruce, * who appointed him high sheriff of the county of Peebles.

He married one of the daughters and co∣heiresses of the brave sir Simon Fraser of Oli∣ver-castle, by whom he got the lands and ba∣rony of Biggar, which became one of the chief titles of the family and, * in conse∣quence of this marriage, they have ever since continued to quarter the arms of Fraser with their own.

He was succeeded by his son,

VII. Sir MALCOLM FLEMING of Big∣gar, who obtained from Malcolm earl of Wig∣ton, dilecto consanguineo suo, Malcolmo Fle∣ming de Biggar, * a grant of the lands of Auch∣moir, Seymoir, &c. by a charter, dated anno 1357.

He was also a man of great worth and me∣rit, and was by king David II. appointed she∣riff of the county of Dunbarton, * anno 1364.

Upon the resignation of his cousin Thomas earl of Wigton, he got the lands and barony of Lenzie, and others, as before observed, which were confirmed to him by a charter under the great seal from king Robert II. Malcolmo Fleming domino de Biggar, * militi, totam baroniam de Lenzie, &c. &c. dated anno 1383.

He died soon thereafter, and, by Christian his wife, left issue two sons.

2. Patrick, to whom he gave a part of the lands of Lenzie, upon which he got a charter under the great seal, Patricio Fleming, filio secundo genito Malcohni domim de Biggar, &c. dated anno 1375. * He was ancestor of the Flemings of Bord, &c.

Sir Malcolm was succeeded by his eldest son,

VIII. Sir DAVID FLEMING, promiseu∣ously designed of Biggar and Cumbernauld, a man of great courage and resolution, who re∣markably distinguished himself at the battle of Otterburn, where the Scots obtained a vic∣tory over the English, though their brave Page 696 general, * the earl of Douglas, was slain, anno 1388.

He got a grant from king Robert III. of an annuity of fifty pounds per annum for his life, payable by the religious at Holyrood-house, by his royal charter, * Davidi Fleming domino de Biggar, dated in 1390.

He afterwards got charters of the lands of Glenrusco, Cumbernauld, and many others, in the years 1395, * 1399, and 1404, by which it appears he was possessed of an opu∣lent estate.

He was one of the Scotch commissioners appointed to settle a truce with the English, and is then designed David Fleming, * dominus de Biggar, miles, anno 1404.

He was a liberal benefactor to the religious, and made several considerable donations to the monasteries of Holyrood-house and Cam∣buskenneth, of which we shall here mention only one: David Fleming dominus de Biggar, cum consensu Malcolmi Fleming filii nostri, et haeredis, pro salute animae domini Malcolmi Fleming, quond. nostri genitoris, et Christi∣anae quond. genitricis nostrae,—animae nostrae et Isabellae sponsae meae, * confirmasse monasterio de Cambuskenneth,—terrarum de Mautoun cum pertinen. quae dudum vocatur Ladyland, &c. &c. 8th November 1399.

He married, 1st, Jean, daughter of sir Da∣vid Barclay, lord of Brechin, by whom he had only one daughter,

Marian, married to sir William Maule, ba∣ron of Panmure, who carried on the line of that family.

He married, * 2dly, Isabel, heiress of the ba∣rony of Monycabo, by whom he had two sons.

2. David, ancestor of the Flemings of Boghall, whose son, Malcolm, got a charter under the great seal, Malcolmo Fleming de Boghall, * of the lands and barony of Boghall, Hadolistane, &c. dated 15th June 1452.

Sir David, with a considerable body of his friends and followers, accompanied prince James (afterwards king James I.) when he went to take shipping at the Bass, intending to go to France. He saw him safe on board, and, in his return home, was, at the instiga∣tion of sir Alexander Seton, attacked at Long∣hermiston-muir by sir James Douglas, with a body of men where, after a smart conflict, sir David was slain on 24th February 1405. As this dissers greatly from doctor Abercrom∣bie and Mr. Crawfurd's account of this affair, we shall here take the liberty to insert the words of our author: *

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

IX. Sir MALCOLM FLEMING, lord of Biggar and Cumbernauld, a man of singular merit and great integrity, who had the ho∣nour of knighthood conferred upon him by king Robert III.

He was one of the Scotch commissioners, appointed to treat with the English about king James I.'s liberty, * anno 1421, and was afterwards one of the hostages for his ransom, anno 1424.

He married lady Elizabeth Stewart, daugh∣ter of Robert duke of Albany, governor of Scotland, * by whom he had a son,

Sir Robert, afterwards lord Fleming,— and a daughter,

Margaret, married to Patrick, son and ap∣parent heir of Andrew second lord Gray.

Sir Malcolm's near connection with the duke of Albany, made him suspected to have been concerned with him in some treason∣able practices against the state: he was there∣fore apprehended, and confined but his in∣nocence being made appear, * he was soon set at liberty.

He was a constant and faithful friend of the young earl of Douglas, and was invited along with him to the castle of Edinburgh, by the chancellor Crichton, where he was bar∣barously murdered, * with that noble lord, and his young brother, in November 1441.

He was succeeded by his only son,

X. Sir ROBERT, who got several char∣ters under the great seal, Roberto Fleming do∣mino de Biggar, of the lands of Pitkenny, Culzeny, * and Balardy, in Fife-shire, with the lands of Auchtermonzy, and others, in the Lennox, anno 1451.

In the same year he got another charter from king James II. erecting the town of Biggar into a free burgh of barony, and by the same prince was created a lord of parlia∣ment, * by the title of lord Fleming of Cum∣bernauld.

He married, 1st, lady Janet, daughter of James seventh earl of Douglas, by whom he had a son,

Malcolm, master of Fleming,—and two daughters.

1. Elizabeth, married to John lord Li∣vingston.

2. Beatrix, married to sir William Stir∣ling of Keir.

Page 697 Robert lord Fleming got a safe conduct to go up to England, * anno 1484, and to return again within twelve months.

He lived to a great age, and died in 1495.

XI. MALCOLM, master of Fleming, only son and apparent heir of Robert lord Fle∣ming, was designed sir Robert of Monycabo.

He was witness in the earl of Crawfurd's commission, as procurator for king James III. concerning his marriage with princess Marga∣ret of Denmark, and is then designed son and apparent heir of Robert lord Fleming, * in 1474.

He married Eupheme, * daughter of James lord Livingston, by whom he had two sons.

1. Sir David, who got a charter under the great seal, Davidi Fleming, militi, of the lands and barony of Lenzie, Cumbernauld, &c. &c. with the castle and forest thereof, in the year 1480 * but he died before his fa∣ther without issue.

2. John, who carried on the line of this family.

The master died betwixt the years 1482 and 1485, and was succeeded by his only sur∣viving son,

XII. JOHN, who succeeding also to his grandfather, anno 1495, was second lord Fle∣ming.

Tho' he was young at his father's death, yet he got a liberal education suitable to his high birth, under the care of his grandfather, and was a man of great parts and fine accom∣plishments.

He got a charter under the great seal from king James IV. Johanni domino Fleming, et Euphemiae Drummond ejus sponsae, * of the lands and barony of Thankerton, and others, dated 5th March 1496.

He was served and retoured heir to his father and grandfather, * anno 1500.

When the queen got infeftment of the earldom of Dunbar, as part of her jointure, John lord Fleming was one of the witnesses, * anno 1503.

He got another charter, under the great seal, * of the lands and barony of Monycabo, and others, dated 8th May 1509.

In the beginning of the reign of king James V. he was, by the estates of the nati∣on, * sent one of the plenipotentiaries to the court of France, and managed the negotiati∣on with dexterity and success.

Upon his return home, the queen regent appointed him one of the lords of her council, and he was again sent ambassador to the court of France, to receive 100,000 franks, and some arms and ammunition, from king Lewis XII. with which he had promised to assist his old allies the Scots. *

Upon the queen's marriage with the earl of Angus, the regency devolved upon the duke of Albany, with whom lord Fleming was in great favour, and was one of the Scotch no∣bles who signed and sealed the answer of re∣fusal to the king of England, * touching the removal of the duke of Albany from the guar∣dianship of the young king, anno 1516.

He was then appointed lord great cham∣berlain of Scotland, and was one of the lords sitting in parliament when a treaty with the English was approven of and ratified in 1517. *

During the duke of Albany's regency, Scotland being threatened with an invasion from England, the regent himself went to France to desire succours from that crown. The affair took up longer time than was expected, and the estates of the nation in 1519 sent the lord chamberlain to hasten his return home: he was very assisting to him in his negotiation, and managed his business with such prudence and dexterity, that the duke regent and he arrived in Scotland together, * with assurance of the desired supplies, anno 1520.

He married, 1st, Eupheme, daughter of John lord Drummond, by whom he had two sons, and three daughters.

His other son, also called Malcolm, was bred to the church, and, by king James V. was appointed prior of Whittern. *

1st daughter, Elizabeth, married to Willi∣am lord Crichton of Sanquhar, ancestor of the earl of Dumfries.

2. Margaret, married to John Cunning∣ham of Glengarnock.

3. Jean, married, 1st, to John, eldest son and apparent heir of sir James Sandilands of Calder 2dly, to David Crawfurd of Kerse.

He married, 2dly, lady Margaret Stewart, daughter of Matthew second earl of Lennox: 3dly, Agnes Somerville but had no issue by either.

The lord Fleming continued in the cham∣berlain's office with the universal applause of the whole nation, till he was barbarously as∣sassinated by John Tweedie of Drumelzier, * and his accomplices, 1st day of November 1524.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

XIII. MALCOLM, third lord Fleming, a man of great abilities, integrity and honour, and a mighty favourite of king James V. who, immediately upon his father's death, consti∣tuted him lord high chamberlain of Scotland Page 698 which office he enjoyed, * as long as he lived, with great reputation and honour.

He was possessed of an immense estate, which appears by no less than twelve char∣ters, under the great seal, of many lands and baronies lying in different counties, too nu∣merous to be here inserted, granted between the years 1525 and 1540 * several of them to him and Janet Stewart, the king's sister, his spouse, &c.

When the king went to France to espouse princess Magdalene, daughter of king Francis I. he took the lord chamberlain along with him, who was very assisting to his majesty in all his negotiations, * some whereof were of very great importance.

When the king raised an army to invade England by the western borders, the lord chamberlain joined them, and was taken pri∣soner at the unfortunate battle of Solway∣moss, in 1542 but obtained his liberty for paying a ransom of 1000 m • erks sterling, * anno 1543.

The lord chamberlain was at first on the king of England's side, in relation to the match between the young queen Mary and prince Edward of England but the refor∣mation being begun in that kingdom, and he being a staunch Roman Catholic, determined to oppose every appearance of innovation or change in the established religion of the king∣dom: he therefore left the English party, and went over to the French, * believing it more for the interest of his country.

In the year 1545, he founded and largely endowed a collegiate church at Biggar, for a provost, eight prebends, sour singing boys and six poor men, * reserving the presentation and patronage thereof to himself and his suc∣cessors for ever.

Soon after this a war broke out between Scotland and England. The earl of Hart∣ford, protector of that kingdom, invaded this country with a powerful • leet and army. The governor of Scotland raised what forces he could to oppose him. They came to an en∣gagement at Pinkie-field, near Musselburgh. The English obtained the victory, and the lord chamberlain, with a great many of the flower of the nobility of Scotland, were kil∣led on the spot, * on the 10th day of Septem∣ber 1547.

By the said Janet Stewart, a natural daugh∣ter of king James IV. * by Agnes countess of Bothwell, daughter of James earl of Buchan, he left issue two sons, and four daughters.

2. John, who succeeded his brother.

1st daughter, Janet, married, 1st, to John master of L • vingston, without issue 2dly, to Richard, son and apparent heir of Andrew Brown of Hartry, Esq.

2. Agnes, married to William lord Li∣vingston, mother by him of Alexander first earl of Linlithgow.

3. Margaret, married, 1st, to Robert ma∣ster of Montrose, eldest son of William the second earl 2dly, to Thomas master of Er∣skine, son and heir apparent of John fifth earl of Marr 3dly, to John fourth earl of Athole, chancellor of Scotland in the mino∣nority of king James VI.

4. Mary, married to sir William Maitland of Leithington, secretary of state in the reign of queen Mary.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

XIV. JAMES, sourth lord Fleming, also a man of great worth and merit.

He was, by the favour of queen Mary, with consent of the duke of Chattelherault, the governor, constituted great chamberlain of Scotland for life, by a patent under the great seal, 10th March 1553, in which are ful∣ly set forth the great and faithful services done to the crown by his father and noble ance∣stors, * with many other clauses very honour∣able for the family.

As his capacity and integrity were well known to the whole nation, he was nam∣ed one of the commissioners by parliament, to go to France, and assist in compleating the queen's marriage with the dauphine, anno 1557, where he strenuously stood up for the rights and liberties of his country but he died at Paris in the year 1558, * not without suspicion of soul play.

By lady Barbara Hamilton, his wise, daugh∣ter of James duke of Chattelherault, he had only one daughter,

Jean, married, 1st, to John lord Thirle∣stane 2dly, to Gilbert earl of Cassilis.

And having no male issue, his estate and honours devolved upon his brother,

XIV. JOHN, fifth lord Fleming, who, in his brother's lifetime, got a charter under the great seal, Johanni Fleming, fratri germano Jacobi domini Fleming, * of the lands of Auch∣termony, and others, 17th January 1557.

He was a man of great integrity, honour, and probity, and invariably attached to the interest of queen Mary, who, on account of his own merit, and the sufferings of his pre∣decessors in the service of the royal family, was pleased to appoint him lord high cham∣berlain of Scotland for life, * by patent dated 30th June 1565.

In 1567, he had a grant of the thirds of the profits and rents of the priory of Whittern, Page 699 was apointed justiciar within the bounds of the Over-ward of Clydsdale, and sherrifdom of Peebles, * and was also made governor of Dun∣barton castle.

He was one of the noble Scotch lords who entered into a solemn bond of association, to stand by and defend queen Mary with their lives and fortunes, * against all mortals. Signed at Hamilton the 8th day of May 1568.

He held out the castle of Dunbarton long for queen Mary against her enemies but it was at last surprised and taken by captain Crawford of Jordanhill * and the governor, with great difficulty, escaped in a small boat, anno 1571.

He married Elizabeth, only daughter and heiress of Robert master of Ross, son and ap∣parent heir of Ninian second lord Ross, by whom he had one son,

John, afterwards earl of Wigton,—and three daughters.

1. Mary, married to sir James Douglas of Drumlanrig, ancestor of the duke of Queens∣berry.

2. Elizabeth, married to sir Alexander Bruce of Airth.

3. Margaret, married to sir James Forrest∣er of Carden.

This worthy lord was accidentally wound∣ed in the knee by a musket ball, * on the street of Edinburgh, of which he died universally regreted, in April 1572, and was succeeded by his only son,

XV. JOHN, sixth lord, who got a charter under the great seal, * Johanni domino Fleming, of the lands of Boghall, Milntown, Arrotshill, &c. anno 1582.

He was appointed principal house-keeper to the king anno 1587, * and got another charter of the lands and baronies of Auchtermony, Lenzie, the burgh of Kirkintulloch, Cumber∣nauld, &c. &c. anno 1588.

We think it proper here to observe, that amongst the writs of the family of Wigton, there is a procuratory of resignation, where∣by this John lord Fleming resigns into the king's hands, his whole lands, for new infest∣ment to himself, and the heirs-male of his body which sailing, to Alexander Fleming of Barochan, and the heirs-male of his body which sailing, to his own nearest heirs-male whatever, bearing the name and arms of Fle∣ming which yet failing, to his own nearest lawful heirs or assignees whatsoever, with this provision, that in case this lord has no heirs-male of his own body, but only daugh∣ters, then the other heirs-male succeeding were to pay 20,000 merks to one, 30,000 merks to two daughters, and 40,000 merks if more upon payment whereof, the said daughter or daughters should be obliged to denude, * &c. &c. Sealed and dated at Edin∣burgh the 8th July 1595, with charter and sasine following thereon, anno 1596.

This noble lord was in great favour with king James VI. who was pleased further to dignify him with the titles of earl of Wigton, lord Fleming and Cumbernauld, * by patent dated at Whitehall, 19th March 1606.

This patent we have not seen, but it is said to be to heirs-male general and there is a pro∣curatory of resignation by this earl, in imple∣ment of his son John lord Fleming, master of Wigton, his contract of marriage, which runs thus: *

The earl married, 1st, lady Lilias Graham, daughter of John third earl of Montrose, by whom he had two sons and five daughters.

2. John Fleming of Boghall, of whom there is now no male succession.

1st daughter, lady Jean, married to George master of Loudoun, only son and apparent heir of Hugh lord Loudoun.

2. Lady Anne, married to sir William Li∣vingston, eldest son of sir William Livingston of Kilsyth.

3. Lady Margaret, married to sir John Charteris of Amis • ield.

4. Lady Lilias, married to sir David Mur∣ray of Stanhope.

5. Lady Mary, married to sir Archibald Stewart of Castlemilk.

He married, 2dly, Sarah, daughter of William lord Herries, by whom he had one daughter,

Lady Rachel, married to John Lindsay of Coventon, Esq.

He died anno 1619, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

XVI. * JOHN, second earl, who got a char∣ter under the great seal, Johanni comiti de Wigton, domino Fleming et Cumbernauld, of se∣veral lands and baronies, 28th March 1620.

Page 700 Also a charter of the patronages of the churches of Stobo, * Drumelzier, Broughton, Dawick, &c. 17th July 1621.

He got another charter of the lands of East and West Castle Rankins, &c. 16th June 1632. *

And a charter, Johanni comiti de Wigton, et suo filio, * of the lands of Cattiscleugh, and others, in Stirlingshire, 24th December 1634.

Also a charter of the lands of Drumgryne, and others, * in Dumfries-shire, dated the pe∣nult day of January 1637.

Though he was one of the committee of parliament anno 1640, * and was appointed a privy counsellor for life anno 1641, yet he was a man of great honour and loyalty, and sincerely attached to the interest of the royal family. *

He married lady Margaret Livingston, daughter of Alexander earl of Lithgow, by whom he had two sons and three daughters.

2. Sir William Fleming, who was gentle∣man-usher to king Charles I. and chamber∣lain of the houshold to king Charles II. He was a steady loyalist, * and was employed in se∣veral negotiations for king Charles I. during his troubles all which he managed with great fidelity and honour.

1st daughter, lady Eleanor, married to Da∣vid earl of Wemyss.

2. Lady Anne, married, 1st, to Robert se∣venth lord Boyd 2dly, to George second earl of Dalhousie.

3. Lady Jean, married to sir John Grier∣son of Lag, and had issue.

He died anno 1650, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

XVII. JOHN, third earl of Wigton, who, in his father's lifetime, * got a charter under the great seal, Johanni domino Fleming, ma∣gistro de Wigton, of the lands, lordship, and barony of Cumbernauld, de novo united, 1st February 1634.

He was a man of untainted honour and loyalty. He joined the king's party in the very beginning of his troubles, and never de∣serted his interest.

He was with Montrose at the unfortunate battle of Philiphaugh, * and made his escape with him to the Highlands but afterwards, by the interest of his friends, he obtained li∣berty to return home, and lived a private and retired life till the restoration.

He married lady Jean Drummond, daugh∣ter of John second earl of Perth, by whom he had six sons and two daughters.

These last three died unmarried.

5. William, afterwards earl of Wigton.

1st daughter, lady Margaret.

The earl died anno 1663, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

XVIII. JOHN, fourth earl of Wigton, who got a charter under the great seal, * Johanni domino Fleming, et Annae Ker sponsae suae, of the earldom of Wigton, lordship of Baldouie, &c. 10th May 1662.

By the said Anne, a daughter of Henry lord Ker, he had only one daughter,

Lady Jean, married to George third earl of Panmure.

And dying without male-issue, anno 1668, his estate and honours devolved upon his next surviving brother,

XVIII. WILLIAM, fifth earl of Wigton, a man of great worth and merit. He was one of the lords of the privy council to king Charles II. and was constituted sheriff of the county of Dunbarton, and governor of the castle which offices he enjoyed as long as he lived.

He married lady Henriet Seton, daughter of Charles earl of Dunfermline, by whom he had two sons and one daughter.

2. Charles, afterwards earl of Wigton.

His daughter, lady Mary, married to Mr. Harry Maule of Kelly, father of the present earl of Panmure.

He died anno 1681, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

XIX. JOHN, sixth earl of Wigton, a man of great honour and integrity.

In 1706, he opposed the union of the two kingdoms with all his interest, believing it in∣consistent with the independency of Scotland.

In the year 1715, he was committed pri∣soner to the castle of Edinburgh, but was set at liberty the year thereafter, without any trial.

He married, 1st, lady Margaret Lindsay, daughter of Colin third earl of Balcarras, by whom he had one daughter,

Lady Margaret, married to sir Archibald Primrose of Dunipace.

He married, 2dly, lady Mary Keith daugh∣ter of William earl Marishall, by whom he had another daughter,

Lady Clementina, of whom afterwards.

Page 701 He married, 3dly, Eupheme, daughter of George Lockhart of Carnwath, Esq by whom he had no children.

He died anno 1743, and having no male∣issue, his estate and honours, devolved upon his brother,

XIX. CHARLES, seventh earl of Wigton, who dying unmarried anno 1747, the repre∣sentation of this noble family devolved upon lady Clementina Fleming, before mentioned, to whom we now return.

XX. Lady CLEMENTINA, only surviv∣ing child of John sixth earl of Wigton, mar∣ried Charles, now lord Elphingston, third son of Charles ninth lord Elphingston, to whom she hath three sons and four daughters.

1. John, married to Anne, eldest daugh∣ter to James lord Ruthven, by lady Anne Stewart, daughter of James earl of Bute.

The honours of Wigton are now claimed by Doctor Fleming physician in Dublin but he has not hitherto proven his descent from, or connection with, this noble family.

Quarterly 1st and 4th, argent, a cheveron, within a double tressure, flowered and coun∣ter-flowered with flowers de lis gules, for Fleming 2d and 3d azure, three cinque • oils argent, for Fraser.

CREST on a wreath a goat's head erased argent, armed or.

SUPPORTERS two stags proper, attired and unguled or, each gorged with a collar a∣zure, charged with three cinquesoils argent.

1241󈟂, king of Scotland (1249󈟂), son and successor of Alexander II Alexander II,
1198�, king of Scotland (1214󈞝), son and successor of William the Lion. He joined the English barons in their revolt against King John of England in 1215.
. Click the link for more information. . He married a daughter of Henry III Henry III,
1207󈞴, king of England (1216󈞴), son and successor of King John. Reign
Early Years

Henry became king under a regency William Marshal, 1st earl of Pembroke, and later Pandulf acted as chief of government, while Peter des Roches
. Click the link for more information. of England and quarreled with Henry, and later Henry's son Edward I Edward I,
1239�, king of England (1272�), son of and successor to Henry III. Early Life

By his marriage (1254) to Eleanor of Castile Edward gained new claims in France and strengthened the English rights to Gascony.
. Click the link for more information. , over the old English claims to overlordship in Scotland. The great achievement of Alexander was his final acquisition for Scotland of the Hebrides and of the Isle of Man, which his father had already claimed from Norway. King Haakon IV of Norway attempted to drive the Scots from the islands, but a storm battered his ships, and he was defeated in the battle of Largs in the Clyde river. In 1266, Alexander signed a treaty with Magnus VI, assigning the islands to Scotland. Alexander survived his children, and when he died his only near relative was his little granddaughter Margaret Maid of Norway Margaret Maid of Norway,
1283󈟆, queen of Scotland (1286󈟆), daughter of Eric II of Norway and granddaughter of Alexander III of Scotland. In 1284 the nobles of Scotland recognized the infant Norwegian princess as heiress presumptive to the Scottish throne, and on
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Coins during the time of William Wallace

There followed two years of jostling for the crown until John Baliol, who was a descendent of David I, was &lsquochosen&rsquo as king, from thirteen competitors, who agreed to abide by the arbitration of Edward I of England (Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots). And in 1292 John Baliol started his short reign through to 1296, during which time he issued Pennies, Halfpennies and Farthings from mints in Berwick and St Andrews.

Scotland now entered into ten years of upheaval and a certain Sir William Wallace joins in the fight to push back Edward I and gain a truly independent Scotland. However, following the arrest of Wallace, he was taken to London, where on the 23 August 1305 at Smithfield, he met an ignominious end, when he was publically hung, drawn and quartered.

This brings us to arguably one of the best known Scottish Kings, when in 1306 Robert the Bruce was crowned at Scone. He reigned until 1329, having famously defeated the English at the battle of Bannockburn in 1314. It was not until around 1320 that he issued a silver penny, halfpenny and farthing, the only coins of his reign.

The 20th Century and Beyond

First World War

Scottish soldiers played a significant role in the First World War and Glasgow&rsquos Clyde side was an important centre during the war as well &ndash products from the shipyards, steel works and iron foundaries were vital to the war effort.

North Sea Oil

The drilling of the first North Sea oil well was considered a major industrial achievement of the time, creating a huge supporting industry in Scotland and giving the UK access to oil made at home for the first time.


Scottish culture worldwide

Films like Braveheart and Trainspotting helped to establish Scotland as a cultural powerhouse authors, artists and musicians from Scotland were enjoying renewed success. J.K. Rowling wrote the global phenomenon Harry Potter in Edinburgh, and in 1997 scientists from the Roslin Institute successfully cloned the first mammal from an adult cell, Dolly the Sheep.

Scottish Parliament reconvenes

The calls for more devolved powers had been growing for decades and resulted in a referendum in 1979. A second referendum was held in September 1997, with the vote delivering greater powers. In 1999 the Scottish Parliament reconvened for the first time in nearly 300 years, ushering in a new era for the Scottish people. The Scottish Parliament building at the foot of the Royal Mile officially opened on October 9, 2004.

Road to Referendum

In 2012, the Edinburgh Agreement was signed by Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond and UK Prime Minister David Cameron. It paved the way for a once in a generation referendum on Scottish independence in 2014 by confirming the Scottish Parliament&rsquos power to hold a vote that will be respected by both governments.

On the 18 September 2014, the people of Scotland voted. In response to the question, 'Should Scotland be an independent country', 1,617,989 (45%) voted Yes and 2,001,926 (55%) voted No.