Missouri Compromise

Missouri Compromise

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Missouri Compromise

The parallel of 36°30' north latitude, the southern boundary of Missouri, was established by the Missouri Compromise of 1820 as the northern limit of that part of the Louisiana Purchase that could be slave territory. Because of the Adams-Onís Treaty Texas was not considered a part of the Louisiana Purchase therefore the annexation resolutions passed by Congress on February 28, 1845, included a restriction that if Texas were to be divided into more than one state, any state established north of the Missouri Compromise line (which was thus extended westward across Texas) would be a free state. In 1850, as a part of the Compromise of 1850 the northern boundary of the Texas Panhandle was fixed at the Missouri Compromise line, thus avoiding conflict in interpretations and making Texas clearly a "slave state." See also SLAVERY.

Facts About Missouri Compromise

The Missouri Compromise in 1820 was an attempt to decrease the growing tensions between the Northern and Southern states in the region. When America bought Louisiana from France, the country doubled in size. This automatically meant that America would now have to deal with increased territorial and border disputes with the existing states.

The southern states were thriving under cotton trade. They had numerous agricultural lands that allowed the states to cultivate cotton in large numbers. Soon, these states started exporting cotton to countries the world over making cotton the most sought after fabric in the world. An increase in cotton production required more number of slaves. While the Southern states were heavily in favor of increase in slavery, which was a part of their culture for centuries, the Northern states were against the idea. An increase in slavery would have meant an increase in the population in the region. This in turn would have caused an increase in the territorial claims and increase in number of new states in the Southern region. This would heavily tilt the number of slave states in America to large proportions while the number of free states concentrated in the northern regions would decline.

This would allow the southern states to dictate laws in the Congress making the Northern states helpless. In order to ease the tension and bring about a balance, the Missouri Compromise was passed. According to this, Missouri would become a slave state while Maine would be declared a free state. This led to an equal number of free and slave states in America giving equal powers to the Northern and Southern regions of the country.

The Missouri Compromise in 1820 allowed Missouri to become a slave state and Maine to become a free state. This way, the number of free and salve states in America would become equal leading to a balanced share of power in the House without any particular region benefiting at the expense of the other. More..

Causes Of The Missouri Compromise

The size of the US doubled after Louisiana Purchase, making it one of the largest countries in the world. The increase in territorial size had its own advantages and disadvantages. While the rich resources and fertile lands of Louisiana were priceless, the increased usage of slavery by the Southern States worried the Northern States.

In addition, the Southern states were flourishing because of the cotton trade in the region. The soil and temperature for growing cotton plants were ideal in the South but not very conducive in the North. With increased lands being used for cotton production, the southern states wanted slavery to be recognized as legal. They also wanted an increase in the number of slaves working in the region to manage the huge amounts of crops. An increase in slavery and constant expansion on the Western borders would automatically give rise to increased number of states in the southern region. This would tilt the number of representation from the Southern states to a much higher level. This greatly worried the representatives from the Northern states who feared they would not have any role to play on the Congress if this expansion were to occur.

Before a major internal revolution could break out, the Missouri Compromise was declared in 1820. According to this, Missouri would become a slave state meeting the demands of the Southern states. Similarly, Maine would become a free state meeting the demands of the Northern states. This way, there was an equal number of free and slave states in America, equalizing the balance in the region.

The Missouri Compromise in 1820 was an attempt to decrease the growing tensions between the Northern and Southern states in the region. When America bought Louisiana from France, the country doubled in size. This automatically meant that America would now have to deal with increased territorial and border disputes with the existing states. More..

Slavery Video

Click on the link below to watch the video on slavery in early America and the Missouri Compromise. (Note: for members of ETAP 623, if you have an interest in seeing this video email me and I will give you the school login for the site.) It would be a good idea to take notes as you watch as well because you will answer questions on the video when you are done.

Questions on Slavery Video

Directions: After you have completed watching the following video, please answer the following questions using complete sentences.

1. Why were slaves first brought to America?

2. Describe in your own words the Triangular Trade.

3. What were at least three crops that were picked by African slaves in America?

4. Why were there more slaves in the south than there were in the north?

5. In what ways could you see slavery in America leading to future conflicts between the north and the south?

Missouri Compromise

An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such state into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, and to prohibit slavery in certain territories.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the inhabitants of that portion of the Missouri territory included within the boundaries herein after designated, be, and they are hereby, authorized to form for themselves a constitution and state government, and to assume such name as they shall deem proper and the said state, when formed, shall be admitted into the Union, upon an equal footing with the original states, in all respects whatsoever.

SEC.2. And be it further enacted, That the said state shall consist of all the territory included within the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning in the middle of the Mississippi river, on the parallel of thirty-six degrees of north latitude thence west, along that parallel of latitude, to the St. Francois river thence up, and following the course of that river, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the parallel of latitude of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes thence west, along the same, to a point where the said parallel is intersected by a meridian line passing through the middle of the mouth of the Kansas river, where the same empties into the Missouri river, thence, from the point aforesaid north, along the said meridian line, to the intersection of the parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the river Des Moines, making the said line to correspond with the Indian boundary line thence east, from the point of intersection last aforesaid, along the said parallel of latitude, to the middle of the channel of the main fork of the said river Des Moines thence down arid along the middle of the main channel of the said river Des Moines, to the mouth of the same, where it empties into the Mississippi river thence, due east, to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river thence down, and following the course of the Mississippi river, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the place of beginning : Provided, The said state shall ratify the boundaries aforesaid . And provided also, That the said state shall have concurrent jurisdiction on the river Mississippi, and every other river bordering on the said state so far as the said rivers shall form a common boundary to the said state and any other state or states, now or hereafter to be formed and bounded by the same, such rivers to be common to both and that the river Mississippi, and the navigable rivers and waters leading into the same, shall be common highways, and for ever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said state as to other citizens of the United States, without any tax, duty impost, or toll, therefor, imposed by the said state.

SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That all free white male citizens of the United States, who shall have arrived at the age of twenty-one years, and have resided in said territory: three months previous to the day of election, and all other persons qualified to vote for representatives to the general assembly of the said territory, shall be qualified to be elected and they are hereby qualified and authorized to vote, and choose representatives to form a convention, who shall be apportioned amongst the several counties as follows: From the county of Howard, five representatives. From the county of Cooper, three representatives. From the county of Montgomery, two representatives. From the county of Pike, one representative. From the county of Lincoln, one representative. From the county of St. Charles, three representatives. From the county of Franklin, one representative. From the county of St. Louis, eight representatives. From the county of Jefferson, one representative. From the county of Washington, three representatives. From the county of St. Genevieve, four representatives. From the county of Madison, one representative. From the county of Cape Girardeau, five representatives. From the county of New Madrid, two representatives. From the county of Wayne, and that portion of the county of Lawrence which falls within the boundaries herein designated, one representative.

And the election for the representatives aforesaid shall be holden on the first Monday, and two succeeding days of May next, throughout the several counties aforesaid in the said territory, and shall be, in every respect, held and conducted in the same manner, and under the same regulations as is prescribed by the laws of the said territory regulating elections therein for members of the general assembly, except that the returns of the election in that portion of Lawrence county included in the boundaries aforesaid, shall be made to the county of Wayne, as is provided in other cases under the laws of said territory.

SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That the members of the convention thus duly elected, shall be, and they are hereby authorized to meet at the seat of government of said territory on the second Monday of the month of June next and the said convention, when so assembled, shall have power and authority to adjourn to any other place in the said territory, which to them shall seem best for the convenient transaction of their business and which convention, when so met, shall first determine by a majority of the whole number elected, whether it be, or be not, expedient at that time to form a constitution and state government for the people within the said territory, as included within the boundaries above designated and if it be deemed expedient, the convention shall be, and hereby is, authorized to form a constitution and state government or, if it be deemed more expedient, the said convention shall provide by ordinance for electing representatives to form a constitution or frame of government which said representatives shall be chosen in such manner, and in such proportion as they shall designate and shall meet at such time and place as shall be prescribed by the said ordinance and shall then form for the people of said territory, within the boundaries aforesaid, a constitution and state government: Provided, That the same, whenever formed, shall be republican, and not repugnant to the constitution of the United States and that the legislature of said state shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States, nor with any regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title in such soil to the bona fide purchasers and that no tax shall be imposed on lands the property of the United States and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents.

SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That until the next general census shall be taken, the said state shall be entitled to one representative in the House of Representatives of the United States.

SEC. 6. And be it further enacted, That the following propositions be, and the same are hereby, offered to the convention of the said territory of Missouri, when formed, for their free acceptance or rejection, which, if accepted by the convention, shall be obligatory upon the United States:

First. That section numbered sixteen in every township, and when such section has been sold, or otherwise disposed of, other lands equivalent thereto, and as contiguous as may be, shall be granted to the state for the use of the inhabitants of such township, for the use of schools.

Second. That all salt springs, not exceeding twelve in number, with six sections of land adjoining to each, shall be granted to the said state for the use of said state, the same to be selected by the legislature of the said state, on or before the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five and the same, when so selected, to be used under such terms, conditions,and regulations, as the legislature of said state shall direct: Provided, That no salt spring, the right whereof now is, or hereafter shall be, confirmed or adjudged to any individual or individuals, shall, by this section, be granted to the said state: And provided also, That the legislature shall never sell or lease the same, at anyone time, for a longer period than ten years, without the consent of Congress.

Third. That five per cent. of the net proceeds of the sale of lands lying within the said territory or state, and which shall be sold by Congress, from and after the first day of January next, after deducting all expenses incident to the same, shall be reserved for making public roads and canals, of which three fifths shall be applied to those objects within the state, under the direction of the legislature thereof and the other two fifths in defraying, under the direction of Congress, the expenses to be incurred in making of a road or roads, canal or canals, leading to the said state.

Fourth. That four entire sections of land be, and the same are hereby, granted to the said state, for the purpose of fixing their seat of government thereon which said sections shall, under the di rection of the legislature of said state, be located, as near as may be, in one body, at any time, in such townships and ranges as the legislature aforesaid may select, on any of the public lands of the United States: Provided, That such locations shall be made prior to the public sale of the lands of the United States surrounding such location.

Fifth. That thirty-six sections, or one entire township, which shall be designated by the President of the United States, together with the other lands heretofore reserved for that purpose, shall be reserved for the use of a seminary of learning, and vested in the legislature of said state, to be appropriated solely to the use of such seminary by the said legislature: Provided, That the five foregoing propositions herein offered, are on the condition that the convention of the said state shall provide, by an ordinance, irrevocable without the consent or the United States, that every and each tract of land sold by the United States, from and after the first day of January next, shall remain exempt from any tax laid by order or under the authority of the state, whether for state, county, or township, or any other purpose whatever, for the term of five years from and after the day of sale And further, That the bounty lands granted, or hereafter to be granted, for military services during the late war, shall, while they continue to be held by the patentees, or their heirs remain exempt as aforesaid from taxation for the term of three year from and after the date of the patents respectively.

SEC. 7. And be it further enacted, That in case a constitution and state government shall be formed for the people of the said territory of Missouri, the said convention or representatives, as soon thereafter as may be, shall cause a true and attested copy of such constitution or frame of state government, as shall be formed o provided, to be transmitted to Congress.

SEC. 8. And be it further enacted. That in all that territory ceded by France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, not included within the limits of the state, contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be, and is hereby, forever prohibited: Provided always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labour or service is lawfully claimed, in any state or territory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labour or service as aforesaid.

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the way he pronounces missouri. also I'm from missouri

What 2 Missouri compromise components is there? Explain.

who else is here because their teacher failed to explain what it even is

I like the channel alot especialy this one

POV: ur history teacher be making u watch this

I am watching this in class right now


POV: Social teacher had us watch this

why he look and sound like compressed a ben shapiro (edit: spelling)

My teacher is making us watch this

anyone else here cuz of online school

ugh only watched i cuz history teacher made me ugh

wth how did he get to the couch so fast

who else is watching this for school D:

we asian know better about US history than some americans do

Democrats have always been racists

Love Jihad & Women's Rights

Are people who are fighting against Love Jihaad advocating only a certain people should marry only certain people? No.

Any person is free to marry whoever HE/SHE is willing to marry. It's a free World.

But the problem here is, A Muslim girl marrying a Hindu boy, or a Muslim boy marrying a Hindu girl – The law system in India is such that Muslims are given an exception to enjoy the personal laws & these personal laws are in so many respects are Anti Hindu, they have not had the kind of reforms took place in so far as that of Hindu laws are concerned.

This puts all the Non – Muslim women who choose to marry a Muslim – boy at a disadvantage. So Non Muslim girl if chooses to marry whether out of intention/fraudulence, A Muslim boy, she will loose the right to, (i) Property, the way she would had enjoyed if she were not married a Muslim boy, (ii) She will loose right to divorce, (iii) She will loose right to Inheritance, Succession etc. in ways she would enjoy if she has not married a Muslim boy…..


Shortly after what Mormons consider to be the restoration of the gospel in 1830, Smith stated that he had received a revelation that the Second Coming of Christ was near, that the City of Zion would be near the town of Independence in Jackson County, Missouri, and that his followers were destined to inherit the land held by the current settlers.

If ye are faithful, ye shall assemble yourselves together to rejoice upon the land of Missouri, which is the land of your inheritance, which is now the land of your enemies. [5]

Smith's followers, commonly known as Mormons, began to settle in Jackson County in 1831 to "build up" the city of Zion. Tensions built up between the rapidly growing Mormon community and the earlier settlers for a number of reasons:

  • The Mormons believed—after a revelation recorded on June 6, 1831—that if they were righteous they would inherit the land held by others ("which is now the land of your enemies") in Missouri. [5]
  • Their economic cohesion allowed the Mormons to dominate local economies. [6][7]
  • They believed that the Native Americans were descendants of Israelites and proselytized among them extensively. [8]
  • Most Mormon immigrants to Missouri (which was at the time a slave state) came from areas which were sympathetic to abolitionism. [9][10]

These tensions led to harassment and mob violence against the Mormon settlers. In October 1833, anti-Mormon mobs drove the Mormons from Jackson County. [11]

At that time, opponents of the Mormons used a pattern that would be repeated four times, [12] culminating in the expulsion of the Mormons from the entire state. Lilburn Boggs, as a Jackson county resident, and as Lieutenant Governor, was in a position to observe and assist in executing the tactics described by one Mormon historian:

In 1833 Boggs passively saw community leaders and officials sign demands for Mormon withdrawal, and next force a gunbarrel contract to abandon the county before spring planting. anti-Mormon goals were reached in a few simple stages. Executive paralysis permitted terrorism, which forced Mormons to self-defense, which was immediately labeled as an "insurrection", and was put down by the activated militia of the county. Once Latter-day Saints were disarmed, mounted squads visited Mormon settlements with threats and enough beatings and destruction of homes to force flight. [13]

Forcefully deprived of their homes and property, the Latter-day Saints temporarily settled in the area around Jackson County, especially in Clay County. [11]

Mormon petitions and lawsuits failed to bring any satisfaction: the non-Mormons in Jackson refused to allow the Mormons to return and reimbursement for confiscated and damaged property was refused. In 1834, Mormons attempted to effect a return to Jackson County with a quasi-military expedition known as Zion's Camp, but this effort also failed when the governor failed to provide the expected support. [14]

New converts to Mormonism continued to relocate to Missouri and settle in Clay County. Tensions rose in Clay County as the Mormon population grew. In an effort to keep the peace, Alexander William Doniphan of Clay County pushed a law through the Missouri legislature that created Caldwell County, Missouri, specifically for Mormon settlement in 1836. [15] Mormons had already begun buying land in the proposed Caldwell County, including areas that were carved off to become parts of Ray and Daviess Counties. [16] They had also founded the Caldwell County town of Far West as their Missouri headquarters.

Once they were established in a county of their own, a period of relative peace ensued. According to an article in the Elders' Journal – a Latter Day Saint newspaper published in Far West – "The Saints here are at perfect peace with all the surrounding inhabitants, and persecution is not so much as once named among them. " [17]

John Corrill, one of the Mormon leaders, remembered:

Friendship began to be restored between (the Mormons) and their neighbors, the old prejudices were fast dying away, and they were doing well, until the summer of 1838 [18]

In 1837, problems at the church's headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, centering on the Kirtland Safety Society bank, led to schism. The church relocated from Kirtland to Far West, which became its new headquarters. Mormon settlement increased as hundreds of members from Kirtland and elsewhere poured into Missouri. Mormons established new colonies outside of Caldwell County, including Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County and De Witt in Carroll County. [19]

In the eyes of many non-Mormon citizens (including Alexander Doniphan), [10] these settlements outside of Caldwell County were a violation of the compromise. [20] Mormons felt that the compromise only excluded major settlements in Clay County and Ray County, not Daviess County and Carroll County. [21]

The earlier settlers saw expansion of Mormon communities outside of Caldwell County as a political and economic threat. [13] In Daviess County, where Whigs and Democrats had been roughly evenly balanced, Mormon population reached a level where they could determine election results. [22]

At the same time, a leadership struggle between the church presidency and Missouri leaders led to the excommunication of several high-placed Mormon leaders, including Oliver Cowdery (one of the Three Witnesses and the church's original "second elder"), David Whitmer (another of the Three Witnesses and Stake President of the Missouri Church), as well as John Whitmer, Hiram Page, William Wines Phelps and others.I [23] These "dissenters", as they came to be called, owned a significant amount of land in Caldwell County, much of which was purchased when they were acting as agents for the church. [24] Possession became unclear and the dissenters threatened the church with lawsuits.

The presidency responded by urging the dissenters to leave the county, using strong words that the dissenters interpreted as threats. In his famous Salt Sermon, Sidney Rigdon announced that the dissenters were as salt that had lost its savor and that it was the duty of the faithful to cast the dissenters out to be trodden beneath the feet of men. [25] [26]

At the same time Mormons, including Sampson Avard, began to organize a secret society known as the Danites, whose purposes included obeying the church presidency "right or wrong" and expelling the dissenters from Caldwell County. [27] Two days after Rigdon preached his Salt Sermon, 80 prominent Mormons, including Hyrum Smith, signed the so-called Danite Manifesto, which warned the dissenters to "depart or a more fatal calamity shall befall you". On June 19, the dissenters and their families fled to neighboring counties where their complaints fanned anti-Mormon sentiment. [26] [28] [29]

On July 4, Rigdon gave an oration, which was characterized by Mormon historian Brigham Henry Roberts as a " 'Declaration of Independence' from all mobs and persecutions". [30] The text of this speech was endorsed by Joseph Smith, who appeared at the event and participated in the raising of a liberty pole. [31]

In the speech, Rigdon declared that the Latter-day Saints would no longer be driven from their homes by persecution from without or dissension from within, and that if enemies came again to drive out the Saints, "And that mob that comes on us to disturb us, it shall be between us and them a war of extermination for we will follow them until the last drop of their blood is spilled or else they will have to exterminate us, for we will carry the seat of war to their own houses and their own families, and one party or the other shall be utterly destroyed". [26]

The "Gallatin County Election Day Battle" was a skirmish between Mormon and non-Mormon settlers in the newly formed Daviess County, Missouri, on August 6, 1838. [32] [33]

William Peniston, a candidate for the state legislature, made disparaging statements about the Mormons, calling them "horse-thieves and robbers", [34] and warned them not to vote in the election. [35] Reminding Daviess County residents of the growing electoral power of the Mormon community, Peniston made a speech in Gallatin claiming that if the Missourians "suffer such men as these [Mormons] to vote, you will soon lose your suffrage." Around 200 non-Mormons gathered in Gallatin on election day to prevent Mormons from voting. [36]

When about thirty Latter Day Saints approached the polling place, a Missourian named Dick Weldon declared that in Clay County the Mormons had not been allowed to vote, "no more than negroes". One of the Mormons present, Samuel Brown, claimed that Peniston's statements were false and then declared his intention to vote. This triggered a brawl between the bystanders. [34]

At the start of the brawl, Mormon John Butler let out a call, "Oh yes, you Danites, here is a job for us!" which rallied the Mormons and allowed them to drive off their opponents. [36]

A number of Missourians left the scene to obtain guns and ammunition and swore that they would "kill all the Saints they could find, or drive them out of Daviess County, sparing neither men, women or children". [35] The crowd dispersed, and the Mormons returned to their homes.

The skirmish is often cited as the first serious violence of the war in Missouri.

Rumors among both parties spread that there were casualties in the conflict. When Joseph Smith and volunteers rode to Adam-ondi-Ahman to assess the situation, they discovered there were no truths to the rumors. [35] [36]

When the Mormons heard a rumor that Judge Adam Black was gathering a mob near Millport, one hundred armed men, including Joseph Smith, surrounded Black's home. They asked if the rumor was true and demanded that he sign a document disavowing any connection to the vigilance committees. Black refused, but after meeting with Smith, he wrote and signed a document stating that he "is not attached to any mob, nor will attach himself to any such people, and so long as they [the Mormons] will not molest me, I will not molest them." [27] [37] Black later confirmed that he had felt threatened by the large number of hostile armed men. [38]

The Mormons also visited Sheriff William Morgan and several other leading Daviess County citizens, also forcing some of them to sign statements disavowing any ties to the vigilance committees. [37]

At a meeting at Lyman Wight's home between leading Mormons and non-Mormons, both sides agreed not to protect anyone who had broken the law and to surrender all offenders to the authorities. With peace restored, Smith's group returned to Caldwell County. [37]

Black and others filed complaints against Smith and the other identifiable Mormon participants. On September 7, Smith and Lyman Wight appeared before Judge Austin A. King to answer the charges. King found that there was sufficient evidence to have the defendants appear before a grand jury on misdemeanor charges. [39]

In the spring of 1838, Henry Root, a non-Mormon who was a major land-owner in Carroll County, visited Far West and sold his plots in the mostly vacant town of De Witt to church leaders. De Witt possessed a strategically important location near the intersection of the Grand River and the Missouri River. Two members of the Far West High Council, George M. Hinkle and John Murdock, were sent to take possession of the town and to begin to colonize it. [40] [41]

On July 30, citizens of Carroll County met in Carrollton to discuss the Mormon colonization of De Witt. The question of whether or not Mormons should be allowed to settle in the county was placed on the August 6 ballot a heavy majority favored expulsion of the Mormons. A committee sent to De Witt ordered the Latter-day Saints to leave. Hinkle and Murdock refused, citing their right as American citizens to settle where they pleased. [13] [42]

Sentiment among the anti-Mormon segment of Carroll County's population hardened, and some began to take up arms. On August 19, 1838, Mormon settler Smith Humphrey reports that 100 armed men led by Colonel William Claude Jones took him prisoner for two hours and threatened him and the rest of the Mormon community. [43]

Initial reaction by Missourians was mixed. While Mormons were viewed as deluded or worse, many Missourians agreed with the sentiment expressed in the Southern Advocate:

By what color of propriety a portion of the people of the State, can organize themselves into a body, independent of the civil power, and contravene the general laws of the land by preventing the free enjoyment of the right of citizenship to another portion of the people, we are at a loss to comprehend. [44]

As tensions built in Daviess County, other counties began to respond to Carroll County's request for assistance in expelling the Mormons from their county. Citizens in Saline, Howard, Jackson, Chariton, Ray, and other nearby counties organized vigilance committees sympathetic to the Carroll County expulsion party. [13] [45]

Some isolated Mormons in outlying areas also came under attack. In Livingston County, a group of armed men forced Asahel Lathrop from his home, where they held his ill wife and children prisoner. Lathrop wrote "I was compeled [sic] to leave my home my house was thronged with a company of armed men consisting of fourteen in number and they abusing my family in allmost [sic] every form that Creturs [sic] in the shape of human Beeings [sic] could invent." [46] After more than a week, a company of armed Mormons assisted Lathrop in rescuing his wife and two of his children (one had died while prisoner). Lathrop's wife and remaining children died shortly after their rescue. [47]

On September 20, 1838, about one hundred fifty armed men rode into De Witt and demanded that the Mormons leave within ten days. Hinkle and other Mormon leaders informed the men that they would fight. They also sent a request for assistance to Governor Boggs, noting that the mob had threatened "to exterminate them, without regard to age or sex". [48]

On October 1, the mob burned the home and stables of Smith Humphrey. [43] The citizens of De Witt sent non-Mormon Henry Root to appeal to Judge King and General Parks for assistance. Later that day, the Carroll County forces sealed off the town. [48]

The besieged town resorted to butchering whatever loose livestock wandered into town in order to avoid starvation while waiting for the militia or the Governor to come to their aid. General Parks arrived with the Ray County militia on October 6, but his order to disperse was ignored by the mob. When his own troops threatened to join the attackers, Parks was forced to withdraw to Daviess County in hopes that the Governor would come to mediate. Parks wrote his superior, General David Rice Atchison, that "a word from his Excellency would have more power to quell this affair than a regiment." [48] [49]

On October 9, A C Caldwell returned to De Witt to report that the Governor's response was that the "quarrel was between the Mormons and the mob" and that they should fight it out. [48]

On October 11, Mormon leaders agreed to abandon the settlement and move to Caldwell County.

On the first night of the march out of Carroll County, two Mormon women died. One woman died of exposure, the other (a woman named Jenson) died in childbirth. Several children also became ill during the ordeal and died later. [48] [49]

General David R. Atchison wrote a letter to Governor Lilburn Boggs on October 16, 1838. He stated that General Parks reported to him that "a portion of the men from Carroll County, with one piece of artillery, are on their march for Daviess County, where it is thought the same lawless game is to be played over, and the Mormons to be driven from that county and probably from Caldwell County." Atchison said further, "I would respectfully suggest to your Excellency the propriety of a visit to the scene of excitement in person, or at all events, a strong proclamation" as the only way to restore peace and the rule of law. [50] Boggs, however, ignored this plea and continued to wait as events unravelled. [13]

Meanwhile, a group of non-Mormons from Clinton, Platte, and other counties began to harass Mormons in Daviess County, burning outlying homes and plundering property. [13] Latter Day Saint refugees began to flee to Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection and shelter against the upcoming winter. Joseph Smith, returning to Far West from De Witt, was informed by General Doniphan of the deteriorating situation. Doniphan already had troops raised to prevent fighting between Mormons and anti-Mormons in Daviess County. On Sunday, October 14, a small company of state militia under the command of Colonel William A. Dunn of Clay County arrived in Far West. Dunn, acting under the orders of Doniphan, continued on to Adam-ondi-Ahman. [51] [52] Although he was sympathetic to the Mormons' plight, Doniphan reminded the Latter-day Saints that the Caldwell County militia could not legally enter Daviess County, and he advised Mormons traveling there to go in small parties and unarmed. [51] [53] Ignoring this counsel, Judge Higby, a Mormon judge in Caldwell County called out the Caldwell militia, led by Colonel George M. Hinkle. Although county officials could only legally act within the county, this judge authorized Hinkle to defend Latter-day Saint settlements in neighboring Daviess County. [54]

Colonel Hinkle and Mormons of the Caldwell County militia were joined by elements of the Danite organization. [53] On October 18, these Mormons began to act as vigilantes and marched under arms in three groups to Daviess County. Lyman Wight took his army and attacked Millport. David W. Patten, also known as Captain Fearnot, attacked Gallatin. Seymour Brunson attacked Grindstone Fork. [55] The Missourians and their families, outnumbered by the Mormons, made their way to neighboring counties.

Having taken control of the Missourian settlements, the Mormons plundered the property and burned the stores and houses. The county seat, Gallatin, is reported to have been "completely gutted" – only one shoe store remained unscathed. [53] [56] Millport, Grindstone Fork and the smaller Missourian settlement of Splawn's Ridge were also plundered and had some houses burned. [57] The plundered goods were deposited in the Bishop's storehouse at Diahman. [58]

During the days that followed, Latter Day Saint vigilantes under the direction and encouragement of Lyman Wight drove Missourians who lived in outlying farms from their homes, which were similarly plundered and burned. [59] According to one witness, "We could stand in our door and see houses burning every night for over two weeks. the Mormons completely gutted Daviess County. There was scarcely a Missourian's home left standing in the county. Nearly every one was burned." [60]

The Missourians evicted from their homes were no better prepared than the Mormon refugees had been. After the stress of being expelled from Millport into the snow, Milford Donaho's wife gave birth prematurely, and the child was severely injured during the birth. [57]

Even Missourians who had been friendly to the Mormons were not spared. Jacob Stollings, a Gallatin merchant, was reported to have been generous in selling to Mormons on credit, but his store was plundered and burned with the rest. Judge Josiah Morin and Samuel McBrier, both considered friendly to the Mormons, both fled Daviess County after being threatened. McBrier's house was among those burned. [57]

When a Mormon band plundered and burned the Taylor home, one young Mormon, Benjamin F Johnson, argued his fellow vigilantes into leaving a horse for a pregnant Mrs Taylor and her children to ride to safety. Ironically, as a result of his kindness, he was the only Mormon who was positively identified to have participated in the home burnings. After several non-Mormons made statements to the authorities that Johnson had acted as a moderating influence on the Danites, he was allowed to escape rather than stand trial. [61]

Many Latter Day Saints were greatly troubled by the occurrences. Mormon leader John Corrill wrote, "the love of pillage grew upon them very fast, for they plundered every kind of property they could get a hold of." [62] Some Latter-day Saints claimed that some of the Missourians burned their own homes in order to blame the Mormons. [63] None of these claims, however, purport to be eyewitness accounts. Overwhelmingly, these claims are contradicted by the majority of both Missourian and Latter Day Saint testimony (which implicate the Mormons in the burnings) and also by the evidence of the looted property found in the possession of Latter Day Saints. [57] Even Mormon leader Parley P Pratt conceded that some burnings had been done by Mormons. [64] Based on the available evidence, LeSueur estimates that Mormons were responsible for the burning of fifty homes or shops and the displacement of one hundred non-Mormon families. [57] Millport, which at time was the largest city in the county and the center for trade, never recovered from the Mormon burnings, and became a ghost town. [65]

Local citizens were outraged by the actions of the Danites and other Mormon bands. Several Mormon homes near Millport were burned and their inhabitants expelled into the snow. Agnes Smith, a sister-in-law of Joseph, was chased from her home with two small children when her home was burned. With one child in each arm, she waded across an icy creek to safety in Adam-ondi-Ahman. Nathan Tanner reported that his militia company rescued another woman and three small children who were hiding in the bushes as their home burned. Other Mormons, fearing similar retribution by the Missourians, gathered into Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection. [57]

Marsh affidavit Edit

Thomas B. Marsh, President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of the church, and fellow Apostle Orson Hyde were alarmed by the events of the Daviess County expedition. On October 19, 1838, the day after Gallatin was burned, Thomas B. Marsh and fellow apostle Orson Hyde left the association of the Church. [66] On October 24, they swore out affidavits concerning the burning and looting in Daviess County. They also reported the existence of the Danite group among the Mormons and repeated a popular rumor that a group of Danites was planning to attack and burn Richmond and Liberty. [67] [68]

Activity 1. The Missouri Compromise: Mapping the Slavery Controversy in 1820

Access the interactive map of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and become familiar with the location of the free states, the slave states, the regions identified as U.S. territories, the regions identified as not belonging to the U.S., and the 36º30' line. By clicking on each state, students can bring up statistical information about each state in the year 1820, compiled by reference to the U.S. Bureau of the Census from the Department of Commerce. Students will find particularly interesting the statistics of their own state, if it existed by 1820. They will do a comparative study of regions and states by using the pop-up information.

Two worksheets with question and answer charts are provided for student use with the interactive map:

    (Pages 1-2 of the PDF): A comparative study of regions and states using the pop-up information (Pages 3-4 of the PDF): An analytical study of changes brought about by the Missouri Compromise

In 1819, just 5 years after the country managed to become Independent, a bitter debate ensued when Missouri filed an application to be joined to the Union as a slave state. At that time, the Union consisted of 22 states, of which 11 allowed slavery and in the other 11 it was considered illegal. The Northern states did not want the Southern, slaveholding states to gain too much power in Congress, especially as they would be in the majority once Missouri joins as a slave state. Missouri was obtained through the Louisiana Purchase, just outside of the old Northwest Territory and they were afraid that allowing slavery in Missouri may influence other states carved from this territory to also become slave states. Bitter debate ensued and continued for months until the Missouri Compromise was made.

As Maine also applied to become a state at around the same time as Missouri, it was in the end decided that the two would be admitted together, to maintain the balance between the senators: Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a slave state. It was also decided that slavery would be outlawed in the rest of Louisiana, above the 36th parallel (around Missouri’s southern border.) For the next 30 years after the Missouri Compromise, states were always added to the Union in this way to maintain balance: one slave state and one free state at the same time.

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Watch the video: What Was the Missouri Compromise? History