Thailand Basic Facts - History

Thailand Basic Facts - History

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Population mMid 2009...............................................65.996.000

GDP per capita 2009 (PPP US$)........... 8,1000
GNP 2009 (PPP, US$ billions)................ 539.7

Average annual growth 1991-97
Population (%) ....... 1.2
Labor force (%) ....... 2.0

Total Area...................................................................198,456sq. mi.
Poverty (% of population below national poverty line)...... 13

Urban population (% of total population) ............................... 21
Life expectancy at birth (years)..................................................... 69
Infant mortality (per 1,000 live births)........................................ 33
Access to safe water (% of population) ..................................... 89
Illiteracy (% of population age 15+) ............................................. 5

Thailand Facts

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Brief History of Thailand

The Thai people established their own states in the early 20th century, with the Ayutthaya kingdom showing itself to be the most dominant for a time. The states were all constantly threatened by the Khmers, Burma, and Vietnam, not to mention the presence of the French and British who were vying for colonies in Southeast Asia at the time. When European colonial powers threatened in the 19th and 20th centuries, Thailand managed to escape as the only country not to fall under colonial rule. This was due to a compromise between the French and British to keep it as a neutral territory between them. The Siamese Revolution was sparked by young military personnel and other civil workers in 1932. This event ended the absolute monarchy of the Ayutthaya Kingdom and established a constitutional monarchy that was largely overseen by military personnel. Civilian and military factions bickered over power in the newly established government, and fear of communism and ultra-nationalism caused instability amongst them. Thailand endured sixty years of military rule, oftentimes with no clear direction or leader aside from the top general.

The current military leaders at the time of World War II opted to ally Thailand with Japan to avoid becoming a victim in its path. During the postwar era, Thailand maintained close ties with the United States, avoiding adherence to the communist influences that many of its neighbors embraced. A democratic government was established in 1992 which has resumed to the present day.

Ancient History

A number of indigenous Mon-Khmer and Malay civilizations used to live in the region now known is Thailand. Yet little is known about the area prior to the 13th century since literary sources are scarce and most of the knowledge we have today is taken from archeology only. Thailand's cultural influences have included the culture and religions of India, the Kindgom of Funan, and the Khmer Empire. The &ldquoIndianized&rdquo kingdoms &ndash what is now central Thailand, Srivijaya, and Cambodia &ndash contributed to the flow of Buddhism from India to what was known as Siam. Other influences throughout the centuries included the Maurya Empire, the Pallava dynasty, and Gupta Empires of India.

From about the 10th to the 14th centuries, Thailand saw a period of Khmer domination over a large portion of what is now Central Thailand, as well as a southward expansion of Thai tribes. Thai city states gradually became independent as the Khmer Empire weakened. The Lanna - based in Chiang Mai, Sukhothai, and Ayutthaya Kingdoms, among others, ended up wrestling amongst each other for control. The Kingdom of Ayutthaya ended up being successful in retaining its independence from other countries and city states. Ayutthaya maintained independence for about 400 years before falling to the Burmese as other city states had previously done. The state of Thonburi, located in the region that now contains Bangkok, was taken back by General Taksin in 1768. From his capital of Thonburi, Taksin used his power throughout Thailand to liberate the city states from Burmese control and reunite them. The resulting country was then called Siam. The Lanna kingdom was also effectively liberated and retained its own form of independence in Northern Thailand.

Thailand's diplomacy skills led them to enter into various treaties with western nations during the period starting in the late 18th century. Thai relations were built particularly with Britain and France. Many say this diplomatic strategy may be the only reason that they retained control during a time of such heavy western colonization in the region.

24 Fascinating Facts About Thailand

1. Thailand used to be known as Siam by the western world

Until the mid 20th century, Thailand was referred to as Siam!

You may have heard older friends and relatives refer to Thailand as Siam. Or you may have heard it in old films, plays, books and poems. But what’s the history of the name, and why did it change?

Since the 11th century, Tai people (a group originating in Southern China and speaking the Tai language) have lived in the area we now call Thailand. It’s generally accepted that they migrated south from their homeland around the year 1000CE. Throughout much of history, Thailand was not a unified nation and was instead ruled by competing city states and micro empires.

During the 15th century, Portuguese diplomats and ambassadors arrived in Asia en masse. When visiting China, they were told of the Xian area to the south. Xian is the name the Chinese gave to modern-day Thailand. Xian was quickly translated to Siam and the name spread fast across the western world. At the time though, Tai people referred to the area as Meuang Thai (meuang means land in English).

It remained as Siam, even becoming officially recognised by the Tai people during the 19th century. However, in 1939, less than a year after appointing a new leader, the name was officially changed to Thailand to honour how the Tai people referred to their homeland.

In 1946, following another regime change, the country became known as Siam once more. This time though, it only lasted a few years. By the turn of the decade, Thailand was once again the officially recognised name for the country.

2. Muay Thai is Thailand’s national sport

All manner of people travel to Thailand to hone their combat skills!

Muay Thai, also known as Thai boxing, has an incredible history in Thailand. It was initially developed for intense hand to hand combat by the Siamese military. The earliest records discovered date Muay Thai to the 14th century. It’s believed to be much older than this though, with many previous teachings being lost during the sacking of the ancient Siam capital of Ayutthaya.

Muay Thai employs more body parts than other martial arts. The elbows, knees, shins and fists are all used. This is how it got the nickname ‘the art of eight limbs’.

Although not as life and death as it once was, Muay Thai is still serious business today. People travel to Thailand from all corners of the world to train at the most prestigious Muay Thai training camps. And it’s not just the fighters who flock to Thailand. Tens of thousands of travellers become Muay Thai spectators each year.

Every major town and city in the country has an arena — with fight nights taking place regularly. Even if you’re not interested in combat sports, we highly recommend going to check out a Muay Thai fight in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. It’s a night to remember!

3. It’s illegal to go commando in Thailand

Yep, you read that right. It’s illegal to go without underwear in Thailand… even if you’ve got trousers or shorts on.

As someone who already finds rules about nakedness weird, this quirky law caught my attention — especially considering how many days I ended up going commando in Thailand after losing all my laundry…

So how is this law enforced? Honestly, no one knows. While the law certainly exists, it appears no one has ever been punished for breaking it. But it’s better to be safe than sorry. If you can cope with the heat, keep those pants on. And if not, be subtle about your lack of undergarments.

4. It’s also illegal to drive without a shirt on in Thailand

As if having to wear pants all the time isn’t hard enough… Turns out it’s against Thai law to drive without a top on too!

Thai culture is much more conservative than backpackers are led to believe. Skin should almost always be covered and Thai people will commonly wear long layers — even on the hottest days or while swimming!

Backpackers in the 70’s could be forgiven for not understanding local customs until they got to their destination but that’s not the case today. It only takes a few minutes of googling to find tips on becoming a respectful traveller.

Punishment for driving topless will usually be a ‘fine’ at the side of the road. However, failure to pay could result in jail time. And of course, don’t risk getting caught topless if you’re already commando – that’d just be asking for trouble!

5. Thailand is the world’s largest exporter of orchids

Orchids, rare, beautiful and notoriously hard to grow!

More than 50% of the world’s orchids are grown and exported from Thailand. The industry is worth billions of Baht each year and employs more than 50,000 people.

However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, exports dropped dramatically due to lockdowns and travel restrictions. Even domestic sales which account for 20% of the overall volume, plummeted to almost nothing.

6. Siamese cats are native to Thailand… sort of…

For many kids growing up in the western world, our first glimpse of Siamese cats is in the 1955 Disney classic, Lady And The Tramp. As with many Disney films, the Siamese cats have not aged well and the whole thing now feels a little problematic, to say the least… But it does effectively show one thing: cats are dicks.

In real life, Siamese cats are vocal, sociable and affectionate. And probably not mildly racist, although who really knows. They’re cats after all.

Physically, Siamese cats are tall, slender and well-muscled. They have light coloured fur over most of their bodies but their feet and faces are much darker. Their eyes are bright blue. They have a small tapered head with long pointed ears. Their heads and ears form a triangle shape that is very attractive to cat breeders.

However, these Siamese cats we know in the Western world differ from their ancestors in Thailand. The shape and behaviour of Siamese cats have been changed and moulded over the last 150 years of selective breeding.

In Thailand, the precursor to the Siamese cat, Wichien Maat still exists today. They have a very similar colour pattern and an affectionate nature. However, they’re not as slender or as vocal. Nor do they have such a triangular face.

The first record of Wichien Maat dates back to the Ayutthaya Kingdom. They are mentioned in a series of ancient documents called Tamra Maew, “The Book of Cat Poems”.

In recent years, some breeders in the USA and Europe have started importing and breeding Wichien Maat cats under the names ‘Classic Siamese’ or “Thai” cat.

7. Thailand was never a European colony

Unlike every other nation in Southeast Asia, Thailand was never colonised by a European power. Both Britain and France attempted to take control of the country, each having colonies in the region. Britain controlled Burma (Myanmar) and much of the Malay Peninsula, including Singapore. France had colonies in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam (which became known as French Indochina).

These two European nations were successful in wrestling control of small chunks of Thailand. However, neither succeeded in gaining more than the border areas. Eventually, Britain and France agreed to leave Thailand alone, allowing it to become a buffer zone between ‘their’ lands.

8. Bangkok’s full ceremonial name is a bit of a mouthful

Be thankful you don’t have to learn the full title for Thailand’s capital city:

“Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Ayuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Piman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit”

“City of Angels, Great City of Immortals, Magnificent City of the Nine Gems, Seat of the King, City of Royal Palaces, Home of Gods Incarnate, Erected by Visvakarman at Indra’s Behest”

9. The Thai national anthem is played before every film in the cinema

Don’t get too comfy during the trailers as you’ll be expected to stand when the national anthem (Phleng Chat Thai) starts! But cinemas aren’t the only place. Every day at 8 am and 6 pm, the national anthem is played on radios, TV stations, speaker systems and even on the monorail. No matter what you are doing when you hear it, you’re supposed to stop moving and stand up to show respect.

It’s actually against the law to continue on your way during the national anthem. Although the law is no longer enforced, it would be disrespectful and a huge cultural faux pas not to wait (you’d literally be the only person still moving). It’s only a minute-long.

10. The first known Siamese twins originated from, you guessed it, Thailand

Chang and Eng are the first documented “Siamese Twins”

Thai brothers, Eng and Chang Bunker, were born conjoined at the chest. They inspired the term “Siamese twins”. They were born on the 11th of May 1811 and travelled to the USA in 1829. They were displayed in freak shows and studied by countless physicians.

The brothers soon realised they were being scammed by their manager and began touring by themselves. Only a decade after arriving in America they’d made enough money to retire. They settled down, became American citizens, married local sisters and fathered a whopping 21 children between them. This makes them the only conjoined men known to have had kids.

At age 62, the Thai brothers died, just hours apart. During an autopsy, it was revealed that their livers had been connected and that it would’ve been impossible to separate them while still alive.

For those of you with an interest in Dark Tourism and the macabre, you may like to visit the gruesome Siriraj Forensic Museum in Bangkok where you can see real Siamese twins in glass jars! (Not for the squeamish.)

11. The national animal of Thailand is the elephant

Majestic, intelligent and iconic. Seeing Elephants in Thailand is a wonderful experience!

From beasts of burden to weapons of war, elephants have played an important role in the history of Thailand. They’re sacred animals within Buddhism and are recognised in iconography and artwork throughout Thailand’s history.

Today, an estimated 7000 Asian elephants call Thailand home. More than 50% of this number are domesticated. Some are used for agricultural purposes, others for tourism.

Elephant tourism came about when logging was made illegal in Thailand. On the 17th of January 1989, the Thai government banned logging. With this one piece of legislation, thousands of elephants were out of work. Previously, they had been used by their mahouts to help remove trees.

These elephants were then taken to Bangkok where, in exchange for food purchased from the mahout, they performed tricks for excited tourists. Elephant riding also became a must-do activity for those visiting Thailand.

However, in recent years, there’s been backlash around elephant tourism and exploitation. In 2010, laws were passed to stop elephant performances. It’s still possible to ride an elephant in Thailand today but the practice has fallen out of favour with tourists and backpackers.

Ethical elephant sanctuaries across Thailand give people a chance to get close to elephants without riding or exploiting them. There’s no riding, and many won’t let you bathe the elephants anymore either. But you’ll see elephants in a much more natural environment than an empty parking lot in Bangkok.

12. Thailand is home to an amazing array of animals

Don’t miss the array of amazing Thai animals!

Elephants aren’t the only astounding animal in Thailand. The country is also home to the world’s largest snake — the reticulated python, the world’s largest venomous snake — the king cobra, and the world’s smallest mammal — the Kittis Hog Nosed Bat (bumblebee bat).

That’s not the end of the list either, Thailand’s waters are home to the world’s largest fish — the whale shark. Monitor lizards, rhinos, tapirs and more bird species than Europe and America combined also roam the nation.

It’s not uncommon for travellers to swim with whale sharks in Southeast Asia. If you want to experience these majestic creatures for yourself, make sure you understand the ethics of swimming with whale sharks.

13. All Thai males will do national service… as a monk

Monks can be any age but young men are expected to join before they reach 20 years old!

Okay, so it isn’t national service. There’s no legal requirement for young men to spend time as a monk. However, with up to 95% of the population being Buddhist, it is expected that most young men will spend some time as a monk before they reach their twentieth birthday.

This expectation applies to all male Buddhists, no matter their class or stature in society. Even royalty will rub elbows with farmers and city workers in the monastery. As a general rule, men are expected to spend three months as a monk in their local temple.

14. Commercial logging is illegal in Thailand

In order to protect their jungles, Thailand banned all commercial logging!

In the last century, industrial logging destroyed three-quarters of Thailand’s hardwood forests. Laws were put in place to reduce the damage but due to political instability in the mid 20th century, the rules were rarely enforced.

In 1989, a full logging ban came into play. Since then, deforestation has decreased and over the last few years, Thailand’s forests have expanded.

15. Thai cuisine is most often eaten with a spoon, fork and knife

Don’t worry about using chopsticks in Thailand, knives and forks are everywhere!

Not good with chopsticks? No problem! Thai food is often consumed with ‘normal’ cutlery. Only noodle dishes originating from China are eaten with chopsticks in Thailand. Even then, forks and spoons are usually provided.

When travelling in Thailand, I was told by a restaurant owner that Thai people eat in the most efficient manner. He explained that rice is a chore to pick up, so it’s best to use a spoon. Noodles are messy with a spoon (or even a fork), so it’s best to use chopsticks. Likewise, why use a fork for that sloppy curry? A spoon is much better.

I have taken this advice to heart, much to my girlfriend’s chagrin. She looks embarrassed every time I ask for a spoon to eat rice in a restaurant — “like a small child,” she’ll often say…

16. Doi Inthanon, Thailand’s highest mountain is 2565.M.A.S.L.

Thailand’s highest peak is easy to visit!

Found in Doi Inthanon National Park, not too far from Chiang Mai, Doi Inthanon the highest point of Thailand. Sitting at 2565 metres above sea level, the peak of Doi Inthanon is almost eight times the elevation of Chiang Mai.

In the grand scheme of things, 2565 metres isn’t too impressive. There’s plenty of cities across South America and Asia that are at much higher elevations. However, what’s great about Doi Inthanon is the ease of access. You can almost drive to the summit! From the car park, you only need to walk a few hundred metres along a nice smooth path to reach the official peak.

Sure, you won’t be standing atop the “roof of Thailand” alone, (it’s estimated over 12,000 people visit the summit each day) but you do get great vistas for very little effort. We suggest exploring the rest of the park too! It’s full of animal and birdlife as well as fascinating plants and even some of Thailand’s Northern Hill Tribes call the area home.

17. Lopburi’s monkey banquet is one of Thailand’s largest festivals

Ice cream may not be a part of their natural diet but monkeys love the stuff!

Around two hours north of Bangkok is the city of Lopburi. Best known for its furry residents, the city draws in hordes of travellers each year. They come to see the thousands of macaques that rule the streets, the main bulk of which are centred around Phra Prang Sam Yot, or as it’s otherwise known Monkey Temple.

Residents have profited from the influx of tourist dollars to such an extent that they throw a yearly banquet to thank and pay their respects to the monkeys. Tons of meat, fish, fruit rice and even ice cream is placed on huge tables outside the temple in one of Thailand’s best festivals. Close to a thousand monkeys leave the temple to have their fill!

18. The Thai alphabet contains 44 consonants and 16 vowel symbols

Thai script can be intimidating if you don’t understand!

But it doesn’t end there. The 16 vowel symbols can be combined to make up to 32 different vowel forms. And you thought learning 26 letters was hard…

When written, Thai script has no spaces between words. Spaces are only used to mark the end of a clause or sentence. There are also no lower or uppercase letters and very little by way of punctuation. To the untrained eye, Thai script can sometimes appear like a wall of squiggles!

When spoken, Thai is a tonal language. Reminiscent of Mandarin, Cantonese and Vietnamese, it has five distinct tones.

Learning to read the language is difficult, but learning a few simple Thai phrases before you go travelling is easy and can really enhance your experience!

19. Beer in Thailand is often served with ice

It’s a weird concept that takes some getting used to but Thai beer is usually served with a glass and ice. As strange as this feels to European or American travellers visiting the region, it’s the most effective way of keeping your beer cool in Thailand’s sweltering climate!

20. Thailand has some serious lèse majesté laws — pay attention to them!

Thailand’s lèse majesté laws mean that any disrespect towards royalty can be punished by imprisonment. What constitutes disrespect goes so far that if Thai royalty are walking in Bangkok, the overhead walkways and monorails will stop. This is to prevent any “normal” person from passing above the head of royalty! It’s also illegal to stand on Thai currency because that would be like standing on the king.

It’s worth knowing that lèse majesté laws are more regularly enforced today than ever. In 2017, a 33-year-old Thai person was convicted of sharing 10 Facebook photos and comments about the royal family. He was sentenced to 35 years in jail. The punishment was reduced from 70 years as part of a plea deal.

21. The traditional Thai greeting is called “Wai” (pronounced “why”)

If you’ve been to Thailand, you’ve seen the greeting. It involves pressing your palms together and bowing your head to meet your fingertips. It’s a sign of respect for younger people to greet older people first.

Men will say “Sawatdee Khrap” and women “Sawatdee Ka” during the greeting.. The wai is also used when apologising or saying goodbye.

22. In 1999, barrels of Agent Orange were dug up while upgrading an airport

Agent Orange is a powerful herbicide with serious adverse effects on people!

After the Vietnam War, American forces stationed in Thailand went home, leaving barrels of harmful chemicals behind.

They were based in Thailand because it gave them a safe place to rest, train and prepare for upcoming missions into Vietnam. However, some Vietnamese sympathisers in Thailand were giving the US forces a hard time. To protect their bases, the American troops used the powerful herbicide, Agent Orange, to clear foliage around their locations — preventing enemies getting to the fence line unseen.

This was the same herbicide the American military dropped on vast swathes of Vietnam. The same herbicide that darkens the skin, causes liver problems and severe skin diseases. The same herbicide that continues to cause miscarriages, deformities and birth defects to this day.

When the American forces went home, they left their barrels of agent orange behind. And what’s the best way to deal with barrels of hazardous material? Bury it and not tell anyone. Obviously.

So in 1999, when construction workers in Thailand were upgrading the airport near Hua Hin District, about 100km from Bangkok, they uncovered barrels of the stuff. The US claimed that the chemicals had degraded over time and were no longer “strong enough to kill a tree”. But other sources claim that the workers fell ill soon after uncovering the barrels.

Whomever you choose to believe, should we not question the wisdom of burying gallons of poison and leaving it to either be uncovered by an unwitting party or to leech into the groundwater?

23. Red Bull came from Thailand

The world famous brand was conceived in Thailand!

You might be surprised to learn that the flavouring for Austrian drink, Red Bull, is produced in Bangkok. And did you know that the popular Thai energy drink, Krating Daeng, uses the same logo as Red Bull? Thailand and Red Bull are intrinsically linked.

During the 1980s, and before the creation of the Red Bull empire, Dietrich Matescitz was working in Thailand. It was here that he tried the Thai beverage, Krating Daeng. He reports having his jet lag completely cleared by the super sweet, caffeine-filled drink.

Mateschitz saw the potential for worldwide success. But first, he needed to make the drink more palatable for western tastes. To do so, he worked with the creator of Krating Daeng, Chaleo Yoovidhya. They reduced the sugar content and carbonated the drink, without reducing the stimulant effect.

In 1987, the two men founded Red Bull GmbH and today, Red Bull is the world’s most popular energy drink. When Yoovidhya died in 2012, he was a multi-billionaire. Matescitz is still alive and running his beverage empire today.

24. Thailand hosts the world’s biggest yearly water fight

Prepare to get wet if you’re in Thailand during Songkran!

If you want to see an entire nation take to the streets for a giant watertight, Songkran Festival is for you. Celebrated in Thailand between the 13th-15th of April, Songkran is the traditional way to see in Thai new year. It has its roots in the Buddhist traditions of washing and cleansing dating back thousands of years.

Be aware though, no one is safe. No matter where you are in the country, if you’re outside, you’re fair game for a soaking. Police officers, security guards, taxi drivers, teachers, children and tourists, prepare to be drenched. Even if you’re sitting at a table eating, you’re an easy target!

A new year means new beginnings so wash away the previous year and start afresh by getting soaked with the rest of the country!

So there we have it, 24 astounding facts about Thailand. Have we missed your favourite fact? Or have you discovered something amazing during your travels? Let us know in the comments below!


Unlike the Kohn style of Thai dance, Lakhon performers are mostly women. Instead of having individual roles in a performance, the women work together and perform as a group. Many stories are told through these performances through acting, song, and of course, dance. The costumes and stage settings are usually much more lavish in lakhon than in some of the other forms of Thai dance. The lower half of the body does not move as much as the top, with graceful and lively hand movements throughout a performance.

General Information

Official Name Kingdom of Thailand
Short Form Thailand (meaning Land of the Free), or Siam ,the country’s name used until the year 1949
Term of Citizenship Thai
Capital Bangkok (or Krung Thep, in Thai, which means City of Angel)
Geographical Location Located in the heart of mainland Southeast Asia, Thailand is a country of mountains, hills, plains and a long coastline along the Gulf of Thailand (1,875 km) and the Andaman Sea (740 km), not including the coastlines of some 400 islands, most of them in the Andaman Sea.Its continental co-ordinates are latitudes 20° 28’ N and 5° 36’ S and longitudes 105° 38’ E and 97° 22’ W.To the north Thailand borders the Lao PDR and Myanmar to the east the Lao PDR and Cambodia to the south Malaysia and to the west Myanmar. The country’s land-based maximum north-south extent is approximately 1,600 km, and its maximum east-west extent measures approximately 870 km.
Area The land area amounts to approximately 514,000 sq. km. The maritime economic zones cover 72,200 sq. km. in the Andaman Sea and 140,000 sq. km. in the Gulf of Thailand, totaling 212,200 sq. km
Population Thailand is a multi-ethnic nation with a population of 64.1 million.
Climate Thailand’s climate ranges from the sub-tropical to the tropical zones, with three distinct seasons: a hot and dry season from February to May, a monsoon season from June to October, and a cooler, dry season from November to January. Average seasonal temperatures vary between a low of 23.0 °C and a high of 32.2 °C.
Language Thai is the national and official language. It is a tonal language with different dialects. Its script was created in 1283 by King Ramkhamhaeng the Great of the Sukhothai Kingdom. Other languages spoken include Chinese and Malay. English, a compulsory subject of secondary school curricula, is widely spoken and understood throughout the country.
Currency Thailand’s currency unit is the Baht, which is divided into 100 satangs. Notes are in 20 baht (green), 50 baht (blue), 100 baht (red), 500 baht (purple), and 1,000 baht (brown) denominations. The exchange rates against the US dollars averaged out at 31.0 baht to US$ 1 in 2012. Coins are valued at 25 and 50 satangs (brass-colored), 1 baht (nickel), 2 baht (brass/nickel), 5 baht (nickel with copper rim), and 10 baht (nickel with a brass center).
National Flag Five horizontal bands of red, white and blue represent unity of the nation, purity of religion, and the monarchy, respectively.
Religion The majority of Thais (over 90 per cent) are Buddhists, although other major religions are practiced. These include Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism. The Constitution makes no mention of any religion or sect as a national religion and grants complete freedom of worship for all Thai citizens.
Form of Government Thailand is a parliamentary (bi-cameral) democracy witha constitutional monarchy.
National symbols The Sala Thai (Thai Pavilion) is the country’s architectural symbol reflecting the skill of Thai craftsmen. Chang Thai (Thai elephant or Elephas maximus indicus) is a symbol historically and traditionally associated with Thailand. The national plant is the Rachaphruek (Cassia fistula Linn),known as the Piper Tree orIndian Laburnum in English.
Main Exports Main exports comprise manufacturing products (74%), agricultural products (13%), agro-industrial products (8%), and mining and others (5%). Major manufacturing products are automobiles and automotive parts, computers and components, jewelry, rubber products, plastic pellets, and chemical products. As for agricultural products, major export items are natural rubber, rice, tapioca products, processed chicken, frozen seafood products, and chilled fruits and vegetables. Agro-industrial products include sugar and canned and processed food.

Thailand encompasses some of the oldest settled areas in the world. Homo erectus, dated to between 1.6-0.5 million years ago, has been discovered here. Later prehistoric periods include the emergence of agriculture some 6,000-7,000 years ago, the Bronze Age around 4,000 years ago, and an early form of urbanization at about 2,300-2,500 years ago. Chinese records also mention the existence of towns and cities in several parts of Thailand. An early peak in population was reached between 600 and 1400 AD, with towns and large settlements surrounded by walls and moats.The kingdoms of Sukhothai and Lan Na, among other Thai principalities, were firmly established by the 13 th century, when the classic and distinctively Thai style of arts, crafts and architecture was formed.Greater political and cultural achievements were attained with the emergence of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya (1350-1767 AD), known historically for its far-reaching diplomacy and commerce.Following the destruction of Ayutthaya in 1761, the Thai armed forced moved south to Thon Buri to regroup and restore their kingdom. The center of power moved across the Chao Phraya River, when Krung Thep, internationally known as Bangkok, was founded in 1782. Since then the Royal House of Chakri has reigned over the Kingdom.

The institution of the monarchy in Thailand is in many ways unique. Not only does it have a history going back more than seven hundred years, but it has also managed to preserve its relevance in the contemporary world. A constitutional monarchy since the promulgation of the Kingdom’s first constitution in 1932, the institution today continues to command deep, universal respect and serves as a guiding light and unifying force for the country, a focal point that brings together people from all backgrounds and shades of political thought and gives them an intense awareness of being Thai.The love and reverence the Thai people have for their King stem in large part from the moral authority His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej The Great has earned during his reign, one that involves a remarkable degree of personal contact with the people. At the same time, it is rooted in attitudes that can be traced to the earliest days of Thailand as a nation state and in some of the past monarchs who continue to serve as models of kingship. Thai concepts of monarchy have their origins in Sukhothai, founded in the early part of the 13th century and generally regarded as the first truly independent Thai kingdom. Here, particularly under the reign of King Ramkhamhaeng the Great (1275-1317 AD), was born the ideal of a paternalistic ruler alert to the needs of his people and aware of the fact that his duty was to guide them.Such forms part of Dasavidha-rajadhamma, or the ten precepts of kingship, which – rooted in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism – encompasses such virtues as willingness to give and sacrifice for a greater good, morality, honesty, open-mindedness, diligence, compassion, perseverance and righteousness.With the founding of the Chakri dynasty in 1782 and the establishment of Bangkok as the capital, the kingship was based primarily on adherence to the said Buddhist concepts of virtue, which indeed has served to the present day as a code of conduct of a Thai monarch and made the monarchical institution one that is responsive to the needs of the people. The Bangkok period has produced a succession of able kings, capable of meeting a variety of challenges to the country, to the people as well as to the monarchy itself.Today, Thailand is a constitutional monarchy with a democratic form of government. The Thai monarch reigns, but does not rule. He discharges his roles in accordance with the country’s constitution and remains above partisan politics, while continuing to contribute to the development and well-being of the Kingdom and its people.

Thailand is Southeast Asia’s second largest economy with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of around USD 500 billion. With a free-market economy, the Kingdom has a strong domestic market and a growing middle class, with the private sector being the main engine of growth. The Thai economy is well integrated into the global marketplace, with exports accounting for over 70 percent of the Kingdom’s GDP. Thailand also has a strong industrial sector (40 percent of GDP) and a robust and growing services sector (50 percent of GDP) centered on the tourism and financial services industries.Though traditionally an agrarian society and historically one of the world’s few net food exporters, the agricultural sector today accounts for approximately 9 percent of the country’s GDP.

Given the importance of exports to Thailand, it has been a leader in the region in terms of trade liberalization and facilitation with the rest of the world, starting with its Asian neighbors. Thailand is a key player in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), enjoying a strategic location that provides easy access to a larger market of over 660 million people, making it a community of connectivity, a single market and production base. Furthermore, Thailand’s convenient access to China and India, as well as to other East Asian countries such as Japan and the Republic of Korea, takes this huge consumer market to even bigger proportions.

Thailand’s friendly relations and expanding networks of free trade agreements with other countries have further opened up trade access to markets both within and outside the region. These, coupled with the Kingdom’s strategic positioning, have made the country a regional center for international travel and trade, as well as a hub for various industries, of which the most notable are the automotive industry and agro-industries. With a favorable investment climate, an entrepreneurial spirit and an open society, Thailand has been chosen by many businesses, media firms, as well as international organizations and non-governmental organizations

With a foreign policy of “Looking to the Future,” Thailand has long adopted an outward-looking foreign policy and has sought to deepen and broaden its relations and cooperation with all countries within the bilateral, regional and multilateral frameworks.As an active and responsible member of the international community, Thailand participates fully in regional and international organizations. Thailand seeks to play a constructive role in international affairs and address the challenges faced by the global community.Currently, Thailand enjoys diplomatic relations with over 190 countries and maintains more than 90 embassies, consulates-general and diplomatic missions abroad. Most recently, Thailand opened an embassy in Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan in 2012.Thailand attaches great importance to the deepening and broadening of its relations and cooperation with neighboring countries, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Asia-Pacific region as a whole. At the same time, it seeks to further strengthen partnerships at all levels with strategic countries and trade partners around the world.

As a founding member of ASEAN, Thailand has been a major player in contributing to the progress of the organization as well as enhancing its role on the global stage. Thailand is a key driving force in the efforts toward an ASEAN Community by 2015 and will further strengthen regional and sub-regional cooperation in a wide spectrum of issues. The kingdom is also committed to playing an active role in working to address these global challenges in various fora including the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asian Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Community (APEC), and the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM),.

Additionally, Thailand is a major proponent of ASEAN Connectivity and also supports regional and sub-regional integration. Through frameworks such as the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), the Ayeyawady – Chao Phraya – Mekong Economic Cooperation Strategy (ACMECS), the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) cooperation and the Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI), Thailand has been promoting technical cooperation and capacity-building, sharing with its neighbors as well as other developing countries its experience and best practices in fields of its expertise. Such fields include agriculture, public health, tourism and education, as well as projects inspired by the various royal initiatives and concepts such as the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy, crop substitution and the promotion of sustainable alternative livelihood.

Thailand is strongly committed to multilateralism under the United Nations (UN) as a pillar of its foreign policy and as the most effective approach to addressing global challenges.As one of the earliest members of the UN (since 1946), Thailand has actively worked in cooperation with all UN agencies in Thailand, Southeast Asia and other parts of the world.

Bangkok is the center for many regional offices of United Nations network organizations such as the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization and its Secretariat (SEAMEO).

In keeping with its international responsibilities, Thailand has played an active role in peace keeping operations in many parts of the world, such as in Timor Leste, Burundi and Darfur. Moreover, it sent a counter Piracy Task Force to join the Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) in the Gulf of Aden during September-December 2010 and again during July-November 2011. Looking ahead, Thailand remains firmly committed to the maintenance and promotion of international security and has announced its candidacy for a non-permanent seat on the United Nations’ Security Council for the term 2017-2018.

Thailand attaches importance to the issues of piracy and maritime security, as a littoral state of the Malacca Straits. Thailand has also been working closely with many countries to prevent international terrorism in all aspects and also recognizes the importance of dealing with the root causes of terrorism, including poverty, social injustice, religious intolerance, and the existence of regional and international conflicts.

Additionally, the kingdom has worked to foster international partnerships to attain the UN Millennium Development Goals as well as to tackle various development challenges from food security to climate change and from environmental degradation, infectious diseases to health concerns. Thailand is also active in area of disaster prevention and management and has a long-standing tradition of humanitarian assistance. It has provided aid to people affected by recent natural disasters in countries like Myanmar, Haiti, Indonesia, Pakistan, New Zealand and Japan.

Thailand recognizes the importance of interfaith dialogue and has sought to build bridges across different cultures and religions to draw strength from diversity. It is also firmly committed to promotinghuman security and human rights. Thailand is party to most international human rights instruments and seeks to play an active and constructive role in promoting human rights. Thailand was elected a member of the then United Nations Commission on Human Rights from 2001 to 2003 and was elected a member of the Human Rights Council (HRC) for the years 2010-2012. It was also elected to a one-year term as President of the Council in 2010 and is seeking reelection to the Council for the term 2015-2017.


Etymology of Siam

The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders, prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam (Thai: สยาม RTGS: sayam , pronounced [sajǎːm] , also spelled Siem, Syâm, or Syâma). The word Siam may have originated from Pali (suvaṇṇabhūmi, 'land of gold') or Sanskrit श्याम (śyāma, 'dark') or Mon ရာမည(rhmañña, 'stranger'). The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. [ clarification needed ] [15] Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late 14th century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." [16] : 8 A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves syem as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. [ citation needed ]

The signature of King Mongkut (r. 1851–1868) reads SPPM (Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha) Mongkut Rex Siamensium (Mongkut King of the Siamese), giving the name Siam official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to "Thailand". [17] Thailand was renamed Siam from 1946 to 1948, after which it again reverted to "Thailand".

Etymology of "Thailand"

According to George Cœdès, the word Thai (ไทย) means 'free man' in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs". [18] : 197 A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai ( ไท ) simply means 'people' or 'human being', since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word khon (คน) for people. [19] According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai-Tai (or Thay-Tay) would have evolved from the etymon *k(ə)ri: 'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *daj A (Proto-Southwestern Tai) > tʰaj A2 (in Siamese and Lao) or > taj A2 (in the other Southwestern and Central Tai languages classified by Li Fangkuei). [20] Michel Ferlus's work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for the most part by William H. Baxter (1992). [21]

While Thai people will often refer to their country using the polite form prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย ), they most commonly use the more colloquial term mueang Thai (Thai: เมืองไทย ) or simply Thai the word mueang, archaically referring to a city-state, is commonly used to refer to a city or town as the centre of a region. Ratcha Anachak Thai (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย ) means 'kingdom of Thailand' or 'kingdom of Thai'. Etymologically, its components are: ratcha (Sanskrit: राजन् , rājan, 'king, royal, realm') -ana- (Pali āṇā 'authority, command, power', itself from the Sanskrit आज्ञा , ājñā, of the same meaning) -chak (from Sanskrit चक्र cakra- 'wheel', a symbol of power and rule). The Thai National Anthem (Thai: เพลงชาติ ), written by Luang Saranupraphan during the patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย ). The first line of the national anthem is: prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai (Thai: ประเทศไทยรวมเลือดเนื้อชาติเชื้อไทย ), 'Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh and blood'.


There is evidence of continuous human habitation in present-day Thailand from 20,000 years ago to the present day. [23] : 4 The earliest evidence of rice growing is dated at 2,000 BCE. [22] : 4 Bronze appeared circa 1,250–1,000 BCE. [22] : 4 The site of Ban Chiang in northeast Thailand currently ranks as the earliest known centre of copper and bronze production in Southeast Asia. [24] Iron appeared around 500 BCE. [22] : 5 The Kingdom of Funan was the first and most powerful Southeast Asian kingdom at the time (2nd century BCE). [23] : 5 The Mon people established the principalities of Dvaravati and Kingdom of Hariphunchai in the 6th century. The Khmer people established the Khmer empire, centred in Angkor, in the 9th century. [23] : 7 Tambralinga, a Malay state controlling trade through the Malacca Strait, rose in the 10th century. [23] : 5 The Indochina peninsula was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India from the time of the Kingdom of Funan to that of the Khmer Empire. [25]

The Thai people are of the Tai ethnic group, characterised by common linguistic roots. [26] : 2 Chinese chronicles first mention the Tai peoples in the 6th century BCE. While there are many assumptions regarding the origin of Tai peoples, David K. Wyatt, a historian of Thailand, argued that their ancestors which at the present inhabit Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, India, and China came from the Điện Biên Phủ area between the 5th and the 8th century. [26] : 6 Thai people began migrating into present-day Thailand around the 11th century, which Mon and Khmer people occupied at the time. [27] Thus Thai culture was influenced by Indian, Mon, and Khmer cultures. [28]

According to French historian George Cœdès, "The Thai first enter history of Farther India in the eleventh century with the mention of Syam slaves or prisoners of war in Champa epigraphy", and "in the twelfth century, the bas-reliefs of Angkor Wat" where "a group of warriors" are described as Syam. [18] : 190–191, 194–195

Early states and Sukhothai Kingdom

After the decline of the Khmer Empire and Kingdom of Pagan in the early-13th century, various states thrived in their place. The domains of Tai people existed from the northeast of present-day India to the north of present-day Laos and to the Malay peninsula. [26] : 38–9 During the 13th century, Tai people had already settled in the core land of Dvaravati and Lavo Kingdom to Nakhon Si Thammarat in the south. There are, however, no records detailing the arrival of the Tais. [26] : 50–1

Around 1240, Pho Khun Bang Klang Hao, a local Tai ruler, rallied the people to rebel against the Khmer. He later crowned himself the first king of Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238. [26] : 52–3 Mainstream Thai historians count Sukhothai as the first kingdom of Thai people. Sukhothai expanded furthest during the reign of Ram Khamhaeng (r. 1279–1298). However, it was mostly a network of local lords who swore fealty to Sukhothai, not directly controlled by it. [26] : 55–6 He is believed have invented Thai script and Thai ceramics were an important export in his era. Sukhothai embraced Theravada Buddhism in the reign of Maha Thammaracha I (1347–1368).

To the north, Mangrai, who descended from a local ruler lineage of Ngoenyang, founded the kingdom of Lan Na in 1292, centered in Chiang Mai. He unified the surrounding area and his dynasty would rule the kingdom continuously for the next two centuries. He also created a network of states through political alliances to the east and north of the Mekong. [16] : 8 While in the port in Lower Chao Phraya Basin, a federation around Phetchaburi, Suphan Buri, Lopburi, and the Ayutthaya area was created in the 11th century. [16] : 8

Ayutthaya Kingdom

According to the most widely accepted version of its origin, the Ayutthaya Kingdom rose from the earlier, nearby Lavo Kingdom and Suvarnabhumi with Uthong as its first king. Ayutthaya was a patchwork of self-governing principalities and tributary provinces owing allegiance to the King of Ayutthaya under the mandala system. [29] : 355 Its initial expansion was through conquest and political marriage. Before the end of the 15th century, Ayutthaya invaded the Khmer Empire three times and sacked its capital Angkor. [30] : 26 Ayutthaya then became a regional power in place of the Khmer. Constant interference of Sukhothai effectively made it a vassal state of Ayutthaya and it was finally incorporated into the kingdom. Borommatrailokkanat brought about bureaucratic reforms which lasted into the 20th century and created a system of social hierarchy called sakdina, where male commoners were conscripted as corvée labourers for six months a year. [31] : 107 Ayutthaya was interested in the Malay peninsula, but failed to conquer the Malacca Sultanate which was supported by the Chinese Ming Dynasty. [23] : 11, 13

European contact and trade started in the early-16th century, with the envoy of Portuguese duke Afonso de Albuquerque in 1511, Portugal became an allied and ceded some soldiers to King Rama Thibodi II. [32] The Portuguese were followed in the 17th century by the French, Dutch, and English. Rivalry for supremacy over Chiang Mai and the Mon people pitted Ayutthaya against the Burmese Kingdom. Several wars with its ruling dynasty Taungoo Dynasty starting in the 1540s in the reign of Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung were ultimately ended with the capture of the capital in 1570. [31] : 146–7 Then was a brief period of vassalage to Burma until Naresuan proclaimed independence in 1584. [16] : 11

Ayutthaya then sought to improve relations with European powers for many successive reigns. The kingdom especially prospered during cosmopolitan Narai's reign (1656–1688) when some European travelers regarded Ayutthaya as an Asian great power, alongside China and India. [22] : ix However, growing French influence later in his reign was met with nationalist sentiment and led eventually to the Siamese revolution of 1688. [31] : 185–6 However, overall relations remained stable, with French missionaries still active in preaching Christianity. [31] : 186

After a bloody period of dynastic struggle, Ayutthaya entered into what has been called the Siamese "golden age", a relatively peaceful episode in the second quarter of the 18th century when art, literature, and learning flourished. There were seldom foreign wars, apart from conflict with the Nguyễn Lords for control of Cambodia starting around 1715. The last fifty years of the kingdom witnessed bloody succession crises, where there were purges of court officials and able generals for many consecutive reigns. In 1765, a combined 40,000-strong force of Burmese armies invaded it from the north and west. [33] : 250 The Burmese under the new Alaungpaya dynasty quickly rose to become a new local power by 1759. After a 14-month siege, the capital city's walls fell and the city was burned in April 1767. [34] : 218

Thonburi Kingdom

The capital and much territories lied in chaos after the war. The former capital was occupied by the Burmese garrison army and five local leaders declared themselves overlords, including the lords of Sakwangburi, Pimai, Chanthaburi, and Nakhon Si Thammarat. Chao Tak, a capable military leader, proceeded to make himself a lord by right of conquest, beginning with the legendary sack of Chanthaburi. Based at Chanthaburi, Chao Tak raised troops and resources, and sent a fleet up the Chao Phraya to take the fort of Thonburi. In the same year, Chao Tak was able to retake Ayutthaya from the Burmese only seven months after the fall of the city. [35]

Chao Tak then crowned himself as Taksin and proclaimed Thonburi as temporary capital in the same year. He also quickly subdued the other warlords. His forces engaged in wars with Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, which successfully drove the Burmese out of Lan Na in 1775, [31] : 225 captured Vientiane in 1778 [31] : 227–8 and tried to install a pro-Thai king in Cambodia in the 1770s. In his final years there was a coup, caused supposedly by his "insanity", and eventually Taksin and his sons were executed by his longtime companion General Chao Phraya Chakri (the future Rama I). He was the first king of the ruling Chakri Dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom on 6 April 1782.

Modernisation and centralisation

Under Rama I (1782–1809), Rattanakosin successfully defended against Burmese attacks and put an end to Burmese incursions. He also created suzerainty over large portions of Laos and Cambodia. [36] In 1821, Briton John Crawfurd was sent to negotiate a new trade agreement with Siam – the first sign of an issue which was to dominate 19th century Siamese politics. [37] Bangkok signed the Burney Treaty in 1826, after the British victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War. [31] : 281 Anouvong of Vientiane, who mistakenly held the belief that Britain was about to launch an invasion of Bangkok, started the Lao rebellion in 1826 which was suppressed. [31] : 283–5 Vientiane was destroyed and a large number of Lao people was relocated to Khorat Plateau as a result. [31] : 285–6 Bangkok also waged several wars with Vietnam, where Siam successfully regained hegemony over Cambodia. [31] : 290–2

From the late-19th century, Siam tried to rule the ethnic groups in the realm as colonies. [31] : 308 In the reign of Mongkut (1851–1868), who recognised the potential threat Western powers posed to Siam, his court contacted the British government directly to defuse tensions. [31] : 311 A British mission led by Sir John Bowring, Governor of Hong Kong, led to the signing of the Bowring Treaty, the first of many unequal treaties with Western countries. This, however, brought trade and economic development to Siam. [38] The unexpected death of Mongkut from malaria led to the reign of underage Prince Chulalongkorn, with Somdet Chaophraya Sri Suriwongse (Chuang Bunnag) acting as regent. [31] : 327

Chulalongkorn (r. 1868–1910) initiated centralisation, set up a privy council, and abolished slavery and the corvée system. [31] The Front Palace crisis of 1874 stalled attempts at further reforms. [31] : 331–3 In the 1870s and 1880s, he incorporated the protectorates up north into the kingdom proper, which later expanded to the protectorates in the northeast and the south. [31] : 334–5 He established twelve krom in 1888, which were equivalent to present-day ministries. [31] : 347 The crisis of 1893 erupted, caused by French demands for Laotian territory east of Mekong. [31] : 350–3 Thailand is the only Southeast Asian nation never to have been colonised by a Western power, [39] in part because Britain and France agreed in 1896 to make the Chao Phraya valley a buffer state. [40] Not until the 20th century could Siam renegotiate every unequal treaty dating from the Bowring Treaty, including extraterritoriality. The advent of the monthon system marked the creation of the modern Thai nation-state. [31] : 362–3 In 1905, there were unsuccessful rebellions in the ancient Patani area, Ubon Ratchathani, and Phrae in opposition to an attempt to blunt the power of local lords. [31] : 371–3

The Palace Revolt of 1912 was a failed attempt by Western-educated military officers to overthrow the Siamese monarchy. [31] : 397 Vajiravudh (r. 1910–1925) responded by propaganda for the entirety of his reign. [31] : 402 He promoted the idea of the Thai nation. [31] : 404 In 1917, Siam joined the First World War on the side of the Allies as there were concerns that the Allies might punish neutral countries and refuse to amend past unequal treaties. [31] : 407 In the aftermath Siam joined the Paris Peace Conference, and gained freedom of taxation and the revocation of extraterritoriality. [31] : 408

Constitutional monarchy, World War II and Cold War

A bloodless revolution took place in 1932, carried out by a group of military and civilian officials Khana Ratsadon. Prajadhipok was forced to grant the country's first constitution, thereby ending centuries of absolute monarchy. The combined results of economic hardships brought on by the Great Depression, sharply falling rice prices, and a significant reduction in public spending caused discontent among aristocrats. [23] : 25 In 1933, a counter-revolutionary rebellion occurred which aimed to reinstate absolute monarchy, but failed. [31] : 446–8 Prajadhipok's conflict with the government eventually led to abdication. The government selected Ananda Mahidol, who was studying in Switzerland, to be the new king. [31] : 448–9

Later that decade, the army wing of Khana Ratsadon came to dominate Siamese politics. Plaek Phibunsongkhram who became premier in 1938, started political oppression and took an openly anti-royalist stance. [31] : 457 His government adopted nationalism and Westernisation, anti-Chinese and anti-French policies. [23] : 28 In 1940, there was a decree changing the name of the country from "Siam" to "Thailand". In 1941, Thailand was in a brief conflict with Vichy France resulting in Thailand gaining some Lao and Cambodian territories. [31] : 462 On 8 December 1941, the Empire of Japan launched an invasion of Thailand, and fighting broke out shortly before Phibun ordered an armistice. Japan was granted free passage, and on 21 December Thailand and Japan signed a military alliance with a secret protocol, wherein the Japanese government agreed to help Thailand regain lost territories. [41] The Thai government declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom. [31] : 465 The Free Thai Movement was launched both in Thailand and abroad to oppose the government and Japanese occupation. [31] : 465–6 After the war ended in 1945, Thailand signed formal agreements to end the state of war with the Allies. Most Allied powers had not recognised Thailand's declaration of war.

In June 1946, young King Ananda was found dead under mysterious circumstances. His younger brother Bhumibol Adulyadej ascended to the throne. Thailand joined the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) to become an active ally of the United States in 1954. [31] : 493 Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat launched a coup in 1957, which removed Khana Ratsadon from politics. His rule (premiership 1959–1963) was autocratic he built his legitimacy around the god-like status of the monarch and by channelling the government's loyalty to the king. [31] : 511 His government improved the country's infrastructure and education. [31] : 514 After the United States joined the Vietnam War in 1961, there was a secret agreement wherein the U.S. promised to protect Thailand. [31] : 523

The period brought about increasing modernisation and Westernisation of Thai society. Rapid urbanisation occurred when the rural populace sought work in growing cities. Rural farmers gained class consciousness and were sympathetic to the Communist Party of Thailand. [31] : 528 Economic development and education enabled the rise of a middle class in Bangkok and other cities. [31] : 534 In October 1971, there was a large demonstration against the dictatorship of Thanom Kittikachorn (premiership 1963–1973), which led to civilian casualties. [31] : 541–3 Bhumibol installed Sanya Dharmasakti (premiership 1973–1975) to replace him, making it the first time that the king intervened in Thai politics directly since 1932. [42] The aftermath of the event marked a short-lived parliamentary democracy, [42] often called the "era when democracy blossomed." (ยุคประชาธิปไตยเบ่งบาน)

Contemporary history

Constant unrest and instability, as well as fear of a communist takeover after the fall of Saigon, made some ultra-right groups brand leftist students as communists. [31] : 548 This culminated in the Thammasat University massacre in October 1976. [31] : 548–9 A coup d'état on that day brought Thailand a new ultra-right government, which cracked down on media outlets, officials, and intellectuals, and fuelled the communist insurgency. Another coup the following year installed a more moderate government, which offered amnesty to communist fighters in 1978.

Fueled by Indochina refugee crisis, Vietnamese border raids and economic hardships, Prem Tinsulanonda launched a successful coup and became the Prime Minister from 1980 to 1988. The communists abandoned the insurgency by 1983. Prem's premiership was dubbed "semi-democracy" because the Parliament was composed of all elected House and all appointed Senate. The 1980s also saw increasing intervention in politics by the monarch, who rendered two coup attempts against Prem failed. Thailand had its first elected prime minister in 1988. [43]

Suchinda Kraprayoon, who was the coup leader in 1991 and said he would not seek to become prime minister, was nominated as one by the majority coalition government after the 1992 general election. This caused a popular demonstration in Bangkok, which ended with a military crackdown. Bhumibol intervened in the event and Suchinda then resigned.

The 1997 Asian financial crisis originated in Thailand and ended the country's 40 years of uninterrupted economic growth. [44] : 3 Chuan Leekpai's government took an IMF loan with unpopular provisions. [31] : 576 The populist Thai Rak Thai party, led by prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra, governed from 2001 until 2006. His policies were successful in reducing rural poverty [45] and initiated universal healthcare in the country. [46] A South Thailand insurgency escalated starting from 2004. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami hit the country, mostly in the south. Massive protests against Thaksin led by the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) started in his second term as prime minister and his tenure ended with a coup d'état in 2006. The junta installed a military government which lasted a year.

In 2007, a civilian government led by the Thaksin-allied People's Power Party (PPP) was elected. Another protest led by PAD ended with the dissolution of PPP, and the Democrat Party led a coalition government in its place. The pro-Thaksin United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD) protested both in 2009 and in 2010.

After the general election of 2011, the populist Pheu Thai Party won a majority and Yingluck Shinawatra, Thaksin's younger sister, became prime minister. The People's Democratic Reform Committee organised another anti-Shinawatra protest [c] after the ruling party proposed an amnesty bill which would benefit Thaksin. [47] Yingluck dissolved parliament and a general election was scheduled, but was invalidated by the Constitution Court. The crisis ended with another coup d'état in 2014, the second coup in a decade. [d] Since then, the country has been led by the National Council for Peace and Order, a military junta led by General Prayut Chan-o-cha. Civil and political rights were restricted, and the country saw a surge in lèse-majesté cases. Political opponents and dissenters were sent to "attitude adjustment" camps. [48] Bhumibol, the longest-reigning Thai king, died in 2016, and his son Vajiralongkorn ascended to the throne. The referendum and adoption of Thailand's current constitution happened under the junta's rule. [e] In 2019, the junta agreed to schedule a general election in March. [48] Prayut continued his premiership with the support of Palang Pracharath Party-coalition in the House and junta-appointed Senate, amid allegations of election fraud. [50] The pro-democracy 2020 Thai protests were triggered by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and enforcement of the lockdown Emergency Decree. [51] [52]

Prior to 1932, Thai kings were absolute monarchs. During Sukhothai Kingdom, the king was seen as a Dharmaraja or 'king who rules in accordance with Dharma'. The system of government was a network of tributaries ruled by local lords. Modern absolute monarchy and statehood was established by Chulalongkorn when he transformed the decentralized protectorate system into a unitary state. On 24 June 1932, Khana Ratsadon (People's Party) carried out a bloodless revolution which marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy.

Thailand has had 20 constitutions and charters since 1932, including the latest and current 2017 Constitution. Throughout this time, the form of government has ranged from military dictatorship to electoral democracy. [53] [54] Thailand has had the fourth-most coups in the world. [55] "Uniformed or ex-military men have led Thailand for 55 of the 83 years" between 1932 and 2009. [56] Most recently, the National Council for Peace and Order ruled the country between 2014 and 2019.

The politics of Thailand is conducted within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby a hereditary monarch serves as head of state. The current King of Thailand is Vajiralongkorn (or Rama X), who has reigned since October 2016. The powers of the king are limited by the constitution and he is primarily a symbolic figurehead. The monarch is head of the armed forces and is required to be Buddhist as well as the Defender of the Faith. He has the power to appoint his heirs, the power to grant pardons, and the royal assent. The king is aided in his duties by the Privy Council of Thailand. However, the monarch still occasionally intervenes in Thai politics, as all constitutions pave the way for customary royal rulings. The monarchy is widely revered and lèse majesté is a severe crime in Thailand.

Government is separated into three branches:

  • The legislative branch: the National Assembly is composed of the Senate, the 150-member fully appointed upper house, and House of Representatives, the 350-member lower house. Its most recent election is the 2019 general election. The coalition led by Palang Pracharath Party currently holds the majority.
  • The executive branch consisting of the Prime Minister of Thailand who was elected by the National Assembly and other cabinet members of up to 35 people. The cabinet was appointed by the king on the advice of the prime minister. The prime minister is the head of government.
  • The judiciary is supposed to be independent of the executive and the legislative branches, although judicial rulings are suspected of being based on political considerations rather than on existing law. [57]

Military and bureaucratic aristocrats fully controlled political parties between 1946 and 1980s. [58] : 16 Most parties in Thailand are short-lived. [59] : 246 Between 1992 and 2006, Thailand had a two-party system. [59] : 245 Since 2000, two political parties dominated Thai general elections: one was the Pheu Thai Party (which was a successor of People's Power Party and the Thai Rak Thai Party), and the other was the Democrat Party. The political parties which support Thaksin Shinawatra won the most representatives every general election since 2001. Later constitutions created a multi-party system where a single party cannot gain a majority in the house.

Lèse majesté

The 2007 constitution was partially abrogated by the military dictatorship that came to power in May 2014. [60]

Thailand's kings are protected by lèse-majesté laws which allow critics to be jailed for three to fifteen years. [61] After the 2014 Thai coup d'état, Thailand had the highest number of lèse-majesté prisoners in the nation's history. [62] [63] In 2017, the military court in Thailand sentenced a man to 35 years in prison for violating the country's lèse-majesté law. [63] Thailand has been rated not free on the Freedom House Index since 2014. [64] Thai activist and magazine editor Somyot Prueksakasemsuk, who was sentenced to eleven years' imprisonment for lèse-majesté in 2013, [65] is a designated prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International. [66]

Totalling 513,120 square kilometres (198,120 sq mi), Thailand is the 50th-largest country by total area. It is slightly smaller than Yemen and slightly larger than Spain. [1]

Thailand comprises several distinct geographic regions, partly corresponding to the provincial groups. The north of the country is the mountainous area of the Thai highlands, with the highest point being Doi Inthanon in the Thanon Thong Chai Range at 2,565 metres (8,415 ft) above sea level. The northeast, Isan, consists of the Khorat Plateau, bordered to the east by the Mekong River. The centre of the country is dominated by the predominantly flat Chao Phraya river valley, which runs into the Gulf of Thailand.

Southern Thailand consists of the narrow Kra Isthmus that widens into the Malay Peninsula. Politically, there are six geographical regions which differ from the others in population, basic resources, natural features, and level of social and economic development. The diversity of the regions is the most pronounced attribute of Thailand's physical setting.

The Chao Phraya and the Mekong River are the indispensable water courses of rural Thailand. Industrial scale production of crops use both rivers and their tributaries. The Gulf of Thailand covers 320,000 square kilometres (124,000 sq mi) and is fed by the Chao Phraya, Mae Klong, Bang Pakong, and Tapi Rivers. It contributes to the tourism sector owing to its clear shallow waters along the coasts in the southern region and the Kra Isthmus. The eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand is an industrial centre of Thailand with the kingdom's premier deepwater port in Sattahip and its busiest commercial port, Laem Chabang.

The Andaman Sea is a precious natural resource as it hosts popular and luxurious resorts. Phuket, Krabi, Ranong, Phang Nga and Trang, and their islands, all lay along the coasts of the Andaman Sea and, despite the 2004 tsunami, they remain a tourist magnet.


Thailand's climate is influenced by monsoon winds that have a seasonal character (the southwest and northeast monsoon). [67] : 2 Most of the country is classified as Köppen's tropical savanna climate. [68] The majority of the south as well as the eastern tip of the east have a tropical monsoon climate. Parts of the south also have a tropical rainforest climate.

Thailand is divided into three seasons. [67] : 2 The first is the rainy or southwest monsoon season (mid–May to mid–October), which is caused by southwestern wind from Indian Ocean. [67] : 2 Rainfall is also contributed by Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and tropical cyclones. [67] : 2 August and September being the wettest period of the year. [67] : 2 The country receives a mean annual rainfall of 1,200 to 1,600 mm (47 to 63 in). [67] : 4 Winter or the northeast monsoon occurs from mid–October until mid–February. [67] : 2 Most of Thailand experiences dry weather with mild temperatures. [67] : 2,4 Summer or the pre–monsoon season runs from mid–February until mid–May. [67] : 3 Due to its inland nature and latitude, the north, northeast, central and eastern parts of Thailand experience a long period of warm weather, where temperatures can reach up to 40 °C (104 °F) during March to May, [67] : 3 in contrast to close to or below 0 °C (32 °F) in some areas in winter. [67] : 3 Southern Thailand is characterised by mild weather year-round with less diurnal and seasonal variations in temperatures due to maritime influences. [67] : 3 It receives abundant rainfall, particularly during October to November. [67] : 2

Thailand is among the world's ten countries that are most exposed to climate change. In particular, it is highly vulnerable to rising sea levels and extreme weather events. [69] [70]

Environment and wildlife

Thailand has a mediocre but improving performance in the global Environmental Performance Index (EPI) with an overall ranking of 91 out of 180 countries in 2016. The environmental areas where Thailand performs worst (i.e., highest ranking) are air quality (167), environmental effects of the agricultural industry (106), and the climate and energy sector (93), the later mainly because of a high CO2 emission per KWh produced. Thailand performs best (i.e., lowest ranking) in water resource management (66), with some major improvements expected for the future, and sanitation (68). [72] [73] The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.00/10, ranking it 88th globally out of 172 countries. [74]

The population of elephants, the country's national symbol, has fallen from 100,000 in 1850 to an estimated 2,000. [71] Poachers have long hunted elephants for ivory and hides, and now increasingly for meat. [75] Young elephants are often captured for use in tourist attractions or as work animals, where there have been claims of mistreatment. [76] However, their use has declined since the government banned logging in 1989.

Poaching of protected species remains a major problem. Tigers, leopards, and other large cats are hunted for their pelts. Many are farmed or hunted for their meat, which supposedly has medicinal properties. Although such trade is illegal, the well-known Bangkok market Chatuchak is still known for the sale of endangered species. [77] The practice of keeping wild animals as pets affects species such as Asiatic black bear, Malayan sun bear, white-handed lar, pileated gibbon, and binturong. [78]

Thailand is a unitary state the administrative services of the executive branch are divided into three levels by National Government Organisation Act, BE 2534 (1991): central, provincial and local. Thailand is composed of 76 provinces ( จังหวัด , changwat), [79] which are first-level administrative divisions. There are also two specially governed districts: the capital Bangkok and Pattaya. Bangkok is at provincial level and thus often counted as a province. Each province is divided into districts ( อำเภอ , amphoe) and the districts are further divided into sub-districts ( ตำบล , tambons). The name of each province's capital city ( เมือง , mueang) is the same as that of the province. For example, the capital of Chiang Mai Province (Changwat Chiang Mai) is Mueang Chiang Mai or Chiang Mai. All provincial governors and district chiefs, which are administrators of provinces and districts respectively, are appointed by the central government. [80] Thailand's provinces are sometimes grouped into four to six regions, depending on the source.

The foreign relations of Thailand are handled by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Thailand participates fully in international and regional organisations. It is a major non-NATO ally and Priority Watch List Special 301 Report of the United States. The country remains an active member of ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Thailand has developed increasingly close ties with other ASEAN members: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam, whose foreign and economic ministers hold annual meetings. Regional co-operation is progressing in economic, trade, banking, political, and cultural matters. In 2003, Thailand served as APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) host. Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi, the former Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand, currently serves as Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). In 2005 Thailand attended the inaugural East Asia Summit.

In recent years, Thailand has taken an increasingly active role on the international stage. When East Timor gained independence from Indonesia, Thailand, for the first time in its history, contributed troops to the international peacekeeping effort. Its troops remain there today as part of a UN peacekeeping force. As part of its effort to increase international ties, Thailand has reached out to such regional organisations as the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Thailand has contributed troops to reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Thaksin initiated negotiations for several free trade agreements with China, Australia, Bahrain, India, and the US. The latter especially was criticised, with claims that uncompetitive Thai industries could be wiped out. [81]

Thaksin also announced that Thailand would forsake foreign aid, and work with donor countries to assist in the development of neighbours in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. [82] Thaksin sought to position Thailand as a regional leader, initiating various development projects in poorer neighbouring countries like Laos. More controversially, he established close, friendly ties with the Burmese dictatorship. [83]

Thailand joined the US-led invasion of Iraq, sending a 423-strong humanitarian contingent. [84] It withdrew its troops on 10 September 2004. Two Thai soldiers died in Iraq in an insurgent attack.

Abhisit appointed Peoples Alliance for Democracy leader Kasit Piromya as foreign minister. In April 2009, fighting broke out between Thai and Cambodian troops on territory immediately adjacent to the 900-year-old ruins of Cambodia's Preah Vihear Hindu temple near the border. The Cambodian government claimed its army had killed at least four Thais and captured 10 more, although the Thai government denied that any Thai soldiers were killed or injured. Two Cambodian and three Thai soldiers were killed. Both armies blamed the other for firing first and denied entering the other's territory. [85] [86]

The Royal Thai Armed Forces (กองทัพไทย RTGS: Kong Thap Thai ) constitute the military of the Kingdom of Thailand. It consists of the Royal Thai Army (กองทัพบกไทย), the Royal Thai Navy (กองทัพเรือไทย), and the Royal Thai Air Force (กองทัพอากาศไทย). It also incorporates various paramilitary forces.

The Thai Armed Forces have a combined manpower of 306,000 active duty personnel and another 245,000 active reserve personnel. [87] The head of the Thai Armed Forces (จอมทัพไทย, Chom Thap Thai) is the king, [88] although this position is only nominal. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence of Thailand, which is headed by the Minister of Defence (a member of the cabinet of Thailand) and commanded by the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters, which in turn is headed by the Chief of Defence Forces of Thailand. [89] Thai annual defense budget almost tripled from 78 billion baht in 2005 to 207 billion baht in 2016, accounting for approximately 1.5% of 2019 Thai GDP. [90] Thailand ranked 16th worldwide in the Military Strength Index based on the Credit Suisse report in September 2015.

The military is also tasked with humanitarian missions, such as escorting Rohingya to Malaysia or Indonesia, [91] ensuring security and welfare for refugees during Indochina refugee crisis. [92]

According to the constitution, serving in the armed forces is a duty of all Thai citizens. [93] Thailand still use active draft system for males over the age of 21. They are subjected to varying lengths of active service depending on the duration of reserve training as Territorial Defence Student and their level of education. Those who have completed three years or more of reserve training will be exempted entirely. The practice has long been criticized, as some media question its efficacy and value. [94] [95] It is alleged that conscripts end up as servants to senior officers [96] or clerks in military cooperative shops. [97] [98] In a report issued in March 2020, Amnesty International charged that Thai military conscripts face institutionalised abuse systematically hushed up by military authorities. [99]

Critics observed that Thai military's main objective is to deal with internal rather than external threats. [100] Internal Security Operations Command is called the political arm of the Thai military, which has overlapping social and political functions with civilian bureaucracy. It also has anti-democracy mission. [100] The military is also notorious for numerous corruption incidents, such as accusation of human trafficking, [101] and nepotism in promotion of high-ranking officers. [102] The military is deeply entrenched in politics. Most recently, the appointed senators include more than 100 active and retired military. [103]

In 2018 the literacy rate was 93.8%. The youth literacy rate was 98.1% in 2015. [105] Education is provided by a well-organised school system of kindergartens, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools, numerous vocational colleges, and universities. The private sector of education is well developed and significantly contributes to the overall provision of education which the government would not be able to meet with public establishments. Education is compulsory up to and including age 14, with the government providing free education through to age 17. Thailand is the 3rd most popular study destination in Asean. The number of international degree students in Thailand increased by fully 979% between 1999 and 2012, from 1,882 to 20,309 students. The most of international students come from Asian neighbor countries [106] from China, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam. [107] The number of higher education institutions in Thailand has grown strongly over the past decades from just a handful of universities in the 1970s to 156 officially. The two top-ranking universities in Thailand are Chulalongkorn University and Mahidol University. [108] Thai universities research output still relatively low by international ranking comparison, Recent initiatives, such as the National Research University from 9 universities around the country [109] and Graduate research intensive university: VISTEC, designed to strengthen Thailand's national research universities, however, appear to be gaining traction. Thailand's research output, as measured by journal publications, increased by 20% between 2011 and 2016. [110]

Teaching relies heavily on rote learning rather than on student-centred methodology. The establishment of reliable and coherent curricula for its primary and secondary schools is subject to such rapid changes that schools and their teachers are not always sure what they are supposed to be teaching, and authors and publishers of textbooks are unable to write and print new editions quickly enough to keep up with the volatility. Issues concerning university entrance has been in constant upheaval for a number of years. Nevertheless, Thai education has seen its greatest progress in the years since 2001. Most of the present generation of students are computer literate. Thailand was ranked 74th out of 100 countries globally for English proficiency. [111] Thailand has the second highest number of English-medium private international schools in Southeast Asian Nations, according to the International School Consultancy Group 181 schools around the country in 2017 compared to just 10 international schools for expatriate children in 1992. [106]

Students in ethnic minority areas score consistently lower in standardised national and international tests. [112] [113] [114] This is likely due to unequal allocation of educational resources, weak teacher training, poverty, and low Thai language skill, the language of the tests. [112] [115] [116]

Extensive nationwide IQ tests were administered to 72,780 Thai students from December 2010 to January 2011. The average IQ was found to be 98.59, which is higher than previous studies have found. IQ levels were found to be inconsistent throughout the country, with the lowest average of 88.07 found in the southern region of Narathiwat Province and the highest average of 108.91 reported in Nonthaburi Province. The Ministry of Public Health blames the discrepancies on iodine deficiency, and as of 2011 [update] steps were being taken to require that iodine be added to table salt, a practice common in many Western countries. [117]

In 2013, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology announced that 27,231 schools would receive classroom-level access to high-speed internet. [118]

In modern times, Thai scientists have made many significant contributions in various fields of study. For example, In chemistry, Krisana Kraisintu as known as the "Gypsy pharmacist". [119] She developed one of the first generic ARV fixed-dose combinations and dedicated her life to making medicines more affordable and accessible. Her efforts have saved countless lives in Africa,GPO-VIR has now been chosen by World Health Organization as the first regimen treatment for HIV/AIDS patients in poor countries. [120] In Thailand, this drug (GPO-VIR) is used in the national HIV/AIDS treatment programme, making it free of charge for 100,000 patients. [121] while Pongrama Ramasoota, He discoveries production of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus and the world's first Dengue fever medication, include DNA vaccine development for dengue and Canine parvovirus. [122]

Thailand has also made significant advances technology in the development of Medical Robotics. Medical robots have been used and promoted in Thailand in many areas, including surgery, diagnosis, rehabilitation and services. [123] and their use has been increasing. such as, an elderly care robot made by Thai manufacturer that Japanese nursing homes are widely using. [124] In surgery, back in 2019, The Medical Services Department has unveiled Thailand's robot created to help surgeons in brain surgery on patients afflicted with epilepsy. [125] back in 2017, Ramathibodi Hospital, a leading government hospital in Bangkok and a reputable medical school, successfully performed the first robot-assisted brain surgery in Asia. [126] For rehabilitation and therapy robots, were developed to help patients with arm and leg injuries perform practiced movements aided by the robots is the first prize winner of the i-MEDBOT Innovation Contest 2018 held by Thailand Center of Excellence for Life Sciences (TCELS). [127]

According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Thailand devoted 1% of its GDP to science research and development in 2017. [128] Between 2014 and 2016, Research and development workforce in Thailand increased from 84,216 people to 112,386 people. [129] The Thai government is developing new growth hubs by starting with the Eastern Economic Corridor of Innovation (EECi) to accelerating human resource and research development. [130] The National Science and Technology Development Agency is an agency of the government of Thailand which supports research in science and technology and its application in the Thai economy. [131]

By December 2020 with 308.35 Mbit/s Thailand had become world leader in terms of Internet fixed broadband internet speed, with Switzerland and France in Europe in positions 5 and 8 respectively, with the US at position 10 with 173.67 Mbit/s. [132]

The economy of Thailand is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of gross domestic product (GDP). Thailand exports over US$105 billion worth of goods and services annually. [1] Major exports include cars, computers, electrical appliances, rice, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubber, and jewellery. [1]

Thailand is an emerging economy and is considered a newly industrialised country. Thailand had a 2017 GDP of US$1.236 trillion (on a purchasing power parity basis). [133] Thailand is the 2nd largest economy in Southeast Asia after Indonesia. Thailand ranks midway in the wealth spread in Southeast Asia as it is the 4th richest nation according to GDP per capita, after Singapore, Brunei, and Malaysia.

Thailand functions as an anchor economy for the neighbouring developing economies of Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia. In the third quarter of 2014, the unemployment rate in Thailand stood at 0.84% according to Thailand's National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB). [134]

Economic indicators for Thailand

Economic indicators
Nominal GDP ฿14.53 trillion (2016) [135]
GDP growth 3.9% (2017) [136]
• Headline
• Core

0.7% (2017)
0.6% (2017)
Employment-to-population ratio 68.0% (2017) [137] : 29
Unemployment 1.2% (2017) [136]
Total public debt ฿6.37 trillion ( Dec. 2017) [138]
Poverty 8.61% (2016) [137] : 36
Net household worth ฿20.34 trillion (2010) [139] : 2

Recent economic history

Thailand experienced the world's highest economic growth rate from 1985 to 1996 – averaging 12.4% annually. In 1997 increased pressure on the baht, a year in which the economy contracted by 1.9%, led to a crisis that uncovered financial sector weaknesses and forced the Chavalit Yongchaiyudh administration to float the currency. Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh was forced to resign after his cabinet came under fire for its slow response to the economic crisis. The baht was pegged at 25 to the US dollar from 1978 to 1997. The baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the US dollar in January 1998 and the economy contracted by 10.8% that year, triggering the Asian financial crisis.

Thailand's economy started to recover in 1999, expanding 4.2–4.4% in 2000, thanks largely to strong exports. Growth (2.2%) was dampened by the softening of the global economy in 2001, but picked up in the subsequent years owing to strong growth in Asia, a relatively weak baht encouraging exports, and increased domestic spending as a result of several mega projects and incentives of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, known as Thaksinomics. Growth in 2002, 2003, and 2004 was 5–7% annually.

Growth in 2005, 2006, and 2007 hovered around 4–5%. Due both to the weakening of the US dollar and an increasingly strong Thai currency, by March 2008 the dollar was hovering around the 33 baht mark. While Thaksinomics has received criticism, official economic data reveals that between 2001 and 2011, Isan's GDP per capita more than doubled to US$1,475, while, over the same period, GDP in the Bangkok area increased from US$7,900 to nearly US$13,000. [140]

With the instability surrounding major 2010 protests, the GDP growth of Thailand settled at around 4–5%, from highs of 5–7% under the previous civilian administration. Political uncertainty was identified as the primary cause of a decline in investor and consumer confidence. The IMF predicted that the Thai economy would rebound strongly from the low 0.1% GDP growth in 2011, to 5.5% in 2012 and then 7.5% in 2013, due to the monetary policy of the Bank of Thailand, as well as a package of fiscal stimulus measures introduced by the former Yingluck Shinawatra government. [141]

Following the Thai military coup of 22 May 2014. In 2017, Concluded with information on the Thai economy's grew an inflation-adjusted 3.9%, up from 3.3% in 2016, marking its fastest expansion since 2012. [142]

Income, poverty and wealth

Thais have median wealth per one adult person of $1,469 in 2016, [143] : 98 increasing from $605 in 2010. [143] : 34 In 2016, Thailand was ranked 87th in Human Development Index, and 70th in the inequality-adjusted HDI. [144]

In 2017, Thailand's median household income was ฿26,946 per month. [145] : 1 Top quintile households had a 45.0% share of all income, while bottom quintile households had 7.1%. [145] : 4 There were 26.9 million persons who had the bottom 40% of income earning less than ฿5,344 per person per month. [146] : 5 During 2013–2014 Thai political crisis, a survey found that anti-government PDRC mostly (32%) had a monthly income of more than ฿50,000, while pro-government UDD mostly (27%) had between ฿10,000 and ฿20,000. [147] : 7

In 2014, Credit Suisse reported that Thailand was the world's third most unequal country, behind Russia and India. [148] The top 10% richest held 79% of the country's assets. [148] The top 1% richest held 58% of the assets. [148] Thai 50 richest families had a total net worth accounting to 30% of GDP. [148]

In 2016, 5.81 million people lived in poverty, or 11.6 million people (17.2% of population) if "near poor" is included. [146] : 1 Proportion of the poor relative to total population in each region was 12.96% in the Northeast, 12.35% in the South, and 9.83% in the North. [146] : 2 In 2017, there were 14 million people who applied for social welfare (yearly income of less than ฿100,000 was required). [148] At the end of 2017, Thailand's total household debt was ฿11.76 trillion. [137] : 5 In 2010, 3% of all household were bankrupt. [139] : 5 In 2016, there were estimated 30,000 homeless persons in the country. [149]

Exports and manufacturing

The economy of Thailand is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of gross domestic product (GDP). Thailand exports over US$105 billion worth of goods and services annually. [1] Major exports include cars, computers, electrical appliances, rice, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubber, and jewellery. [1]

Substantial industries include electric appliances, components, computer components, and vehicles. Thailand's recovery from the 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis depended mainly on exports, among various other factors. As of 2012 [update] , the Thai automotive industry was the largest in Southeast Asia and the 9th largest in the world. [150] [151] [152] The Thailand industry has an annual output of near 1.5 million vehicles, mostly commercial vehicles. [152]

Most of the vehicles built in Thailand are developed and licensed by foreign producers, mainly Japanese and American. The Thai car industry takes advantage of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) to find a market for many of its products. Eight manufacturers, five Japanese, two US, and Tata of India, produce pick-up trucks in Thailand. [153] As of 2012, Due to its favorable taxation for 2-door pick-ups at only 3-12% against 17-50% for passenger cars, Thailand was the second largest consumer of pick-up trucks in the world, after the US. [154] In 2014, pick-ups accounted for 42% of all new vehicle sales in Thailand. [153]


Tourism makes up about 6% of the country's economy. Thailand was the most visited country in Southeast Asia in 2013, according to the World Tourism Organisation. Estimates of tourism receipts directly contributing to the Thai GDP of 12 trillion baht range from 9 percent (1 trillion baht) (2013) to 16 percent. [155] When including the indirect effects of tourism, it is said to account for 20.2 percent (2.4 trillion baht) of Thailand's GDP. [156] : 1

Asian tourists primarily visit Thailand for Bangkok and the historical, natural, and cultural sights in its vicinity. Western tourists not only visit Bangkok and surroundings, but in addition many travel to the southern beaches and islands. The north is the chief destination for trekking and adventure travel with its diverse ethnic minority groups and forested mountains. The region hosting the fewest tourists is Isan. To accommodate foreign visitors, a separate tourism police with offices were set up in the major tourist areas and an emergency telephone number. [157]

Thailand ranks 5th biggest medical tourism destination of inbound medical tourism spending, according to World Travel and Tourism Council, attracting over 2.5 million visitors in 2018. [158] The country is also Asia's number one. [159] The country is popular for the growing practice of sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and cosmetic surgery. In 2010–2012, more than 90% of medical tourists travelled to Thailand for SRS. [160]

Prostitution in Thailand and sex tourism also form a de facto part of the economy. Campaigns promote Thailand as exotic to attract tourists. [161] One estimate published in 2003 placed the trade at US$4.3 billion per year or about 3% of the Thai economy. [162] It is believed that at least 10% of tourist dollars are spent on the sex trade. [163]

Agriculture and natural resources

Forty-nine per cent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture. [164] This is down from 70% in 1980. [164] Rice is the most important crop in the country and Thailand had long been the world's leading exporter of rice, until recently falling behind both India and Vietnam. [165] Thailand has the highest percentage of arable land, 27.25%, of any nation in the Greater Mekong Subregion. [166] About 55% of the arable land area is used for rice production. [167]

Agriculture has been experiencing a transition from labour-intensive and transitional methods to a more industrialised and competitive sector. [164] Between 1962 and 1983, the agricultural sector grew by 4.1% per year on average and continued to grow at 2.2% between 1983 and 2007. [164] The relative contribution of agriculture to GDP has declined while exports of goods and services have increased.

Furthermore, access to biocapacity in Thailand is lower than world average. In 2016, Thailand had 1.2 global hectares [168] of biocapacity per person within its territory, a little less than world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. [169] In contrast, in 2016, they used 2.5 global hectares of biocapacity – their ecological footprint of consumption. This means they use about twice as much biocapacity as Thailand contains. As a result, Thailand is running a biocapacity deficit. [168]


75% of Thailand's electrical generation is powered by natural gas in 2014. [170] Coal-fired power plants produce an additional 20% of electricity, with the remainder coming from biomass, hydro, and biogas. [170]

Thailand produces roughly one-third of the oil it consumes. It is the second largest importer of oil in SE Asia. Thailand is a large producer of natural gas, with reserves of at least 10 trillion cubic feet. After Indonesia, it is the largest coal producer in SE Asia, but must import additional coal to meet domestic demand.

Informal economy

Thailand has a diverse and robust informal labour sector—in 2012, it was estimated that informal workers comprised 62.6% of the Thai workforce. The Ministry of Labour defines informal workers to be individuals who work in informal economies and do not have employee status under a given country's Labour Protection Act (LPA). The informal sector in Thailand has grown significantly over the past 60 years over the course of Thailand's gradual transition from an agriculture-based economy to becoming more industrialised and service-oriented. [171] Between 1993 and 1995, ten percent of the Thai labour force moved from the agricultural sector to urban and industrial jobs, especially in the manufacturing sector. It is estimated that between 1988 and 1995, the number of factory workers in the country doubled from two to four million, as Thailand's GDP tripled. [172] While the Asian Financial Crisis that followed in 1997 hit the Thai economy hard, the industrial sector continued to expand under widespread deregulation, as Thailand was mandated to adopt a range of structural adjustment reforms upon receiving funding from the IMF and World Bank. These reforms implemented an agenda of increased privatisation and trade liberalisation in the country, and decreased federal subsidisation of public goods and utilities, agricultural price supports, and regulations on fair wages and labour conditions. [173] These changes put further pressure on the agricultural sector, and prompted continued migration from the rural countryside to the growing cities. Many migrant farmers found work in Thailand's growing manufacturing industry, and took jobs in sweatshops and factories with few labour regulations and often exploitative conditions. [174]

Those that could not find formal factory work, including illegal migrants and the families of rural Thai migrants that followed their relatives to the urban centres, turned to the informal sector to provide the extra support needed for survival—under the widespread regulation imposed by the structural adjustment programs, one family member working in a factory or sweatshop made very little. Scholars argue that the economic consequences and social costs of Thailand's labour reforms in the wake of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis fell on individuals and families rather than the state. This can be described as the "externalisation of market risk", meaning that as the country's labour market became increasingly deregulated, the burden and responsibility of providing an adequate livelihood shifted from employers and the state to the workers themselves, whose families had to find jobs in the informal sector to make up for the losses and subsidise the wages being made by their relatives in the formal sector. The weight of these economic changes hit migrants and the urban poor especially hard, and the informal sector expanded rapidly as a result. [173]

Today, informal labour in Thailand is typically broken down into three main groups: subcontracted/self employed/home-based workers, service workers (including those that are employed in restaurants, as street vendors, masseuses, taxi drivers, and as domestic workers), and agricultural workers. Not included in these categories are those that work in entertainment, nightlife, and the sex industry. Individuals employed in these facets of the informal labour sector face additional vulnerabilities, including recruitment into circles of sexual exploitation and human trafficking. [171]

In general, education levels are low in the informal sector. A 2012 study found that 64% of informal workers had not completed education beyond primary school. Many informal workers are also migrants, only some of which have legal status in the country. Education and citizenship are two main barriers to entry for those looking to work in formal industries, and enjoy the labour protections and social security benefits that come along with formal employment. Because the informal labour sector is not recognised under the Labour Protection Act (LPA), informal workers are much more vulnerable labour to exploitation and unsafe working conditions than those employed in more formal and federally recognised industries. While some Thai labour laws provide minimal protections to domestic and agricultural workers, they are often weak and difficult to enforce. Furthermore, Thai social security policies fail to protect against the risks many informal workers face, including workplace accidents and compensation as well as unemployment and retirement insurance. Many informal workers are not legally contracted for their employment, and many do not make a living wage. [171] As a result, labour trafficking is common in the region, affecting children and adults, men and women, and migrants and Thai citizens alike.

The State Railway of Thailand (SRT) operates all of Thailand's national rail lines. Bangkok Railway Station (Hua Lamphong Station) is the main terminus of all routes. Phahonyothin and ICD Lat Krabang are the main freight terminals. As of 2017 [update] SRT had 4,507 km (2,801 mi) of track, all of it meter gauge except the Airport Link. Nearly all is single-track (4,097 km), although some important sections around Bangkok are double (303 km or 188 mi) or triple-tracked (107 km or 66 mi) and there are plans to extend this. [175] Rail transport in Bangkok includes long-distance services, and some daily commuter trains running from and to the outskirts of the city during the rush hour, but passenger numbers have remained low. There are also three rapid transit rail systems in the capital.

Thailand has 390,000 kilometres (240,000 miles) of highways. [176] According to the BBC Thailand has 462,133 roads and many multi-lane highways. As of 2017 [update] Thailand has 37 million registered vehicles, 20 million of them motorbikes. A number of undivided two-lane highways have been converted into divided four-lane highways. A Bangkok – Chon Buri motorway (Route 7) now links to the new airport and Eastern Seaboard. There are 4,125 public vans operating on 114 routes from Bangkok alone. [177] Other forms of road transport includes tuk-tuks, taxis—as of November 2018, Thailand has 80,647 registered taxis nationwide [178] —vans (minibus), motorbike taxis and songthaews.

As of 2012 [update] , Thailand had 103 airports with 63 paved runways, in addition to 6 heliports. The busiest airport in the county is Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi Airport.

Thailand had a population of 66,558,935 as of 2019. [11] Thailand's population is largely rural, concentrated in the rice-growing areas of the central, northeastern and northern regions. About 45.7% of Thailand's population lived in urban areas as of 2010 [update] , concentrated mostly in and around the Bangkok Metropolitan Area.

Thailand's government-sponsored family planning program resulted in a dramatic decline in population growth from 3.1% in 1960 to around 0.4% today. In 1970, an average of 5.7 people lived in a Thai household. At the time of the 2010 census, the average Thai household size was 3.2 people.

Ethnic groups

Thai nationals make up the majority of Thailand's population, 95.9% in 2010. The remaining 4.1% of the population are Burmese (2.0%), others 1.3%, and unspecified 0.9%. [1]

According to the Royal Thai Government's 2011 Country Report to the UN Committee responsible for the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, available from the Department of Rights and Liberties Promotion of the Thai Ministry of Justice, : 3 62 ethnic communities are officially recognised in Thailand. Twenty million Central Thai (together with approximately 650,000 Khorat Thai) make up approximately 20,650,000 (34.1 percent) of the nation's population of 60,544,937 [181] at the time of completion of the Mahidol University Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data (1997). [182]

The 2011 Thailand Country Report provides population numbers for mountain peoples ('hill tribes') and ethnic communities in the Northeast and is explicit about its main reliance on the Mahidol University Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data. [182] Thus, though over 3.288 million people in the Northeast alone could not be categorised, the population and percentages of other ethnic communities circa 1997 are known for all of Thailand and constitute minimum populations. In descending order, the largest (equal to or greater than 400,000) are a) 15,080,000 Lao (24.9 percent) consisting of the Thai Lao (14 million) and other smaller Lao groups, namely the Thai Loei (400–500,000), Lao Lom (350,000), Lao Wiang/Klang (200,000), Lao Khrang (90,000), Lao Ngaew (30,000), and Lao Ti (10,000 b) six million Khon Muang (9.9 percent, also called Northern Thais) c) 4.5 million Pak Tai (7.5 percent, also called Southern Thais) d) 1.4 million Khmer Leu (2.3 percent, also called Northern Khmer) e) 900,000 Malay (1.5%) f) 500,000 Nyaw (0.8 percent) g) 470,000 Phu Thai (0.8 percent) h) 400,000 Kuy/Kuay (also known as Suay) (0.7 percent), and i) 350,000 Karen (0.6 percent). : 7–13 Thai Chinese, those of significant Chinese heritage, are 14% of the population, while Thais with partial Chinese ancestry comprise up to 40% of the population. [183] Thai Malays represent 3% of the population, with the remainder consisting of Mons, Khmers and various "hill tribes". The country's official language is Thai and the primary religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is practised by around 95% of the population.

Increasing numbers of migrants from neighbouring Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia, as well as from Nepal and India, have pushed the total number of non-national residents to around 3.5 million as of 2009 [update] , up from an estimated 2 million in 2008, and about 1.3 million in 2000. [184] Some 41,000 Britons and 20,000 Australians live in Thailand. [185] [186]

Population centres


The official language of Thailand is Thai, a Kra–Dai language closely related to Lao, Shan in Myanmar, and numerous smaller languages spoken in an arc from Hainan and Yunnan south to the Chinese border. It is the principal language of education and government and spoken throughout the country. The standard is based on the dialect of the central Thai people, and it is written in the Thai alphabet, an abugida script that evolved from the Khmer alphabet.

Sixty-two languages were recognised by the Royal Thai Government in the 2011 Country Report to the UN Committee responsible for the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which employed an ethnolinguistic approach and is available from the Department of Rights and Liberties Promotion of the Thai Ministry of Justice. : 3 Southern Thai is spoken in the southern provinces, and Northern Thai is spoken in the provinces that were formerly part of the independent kingdom of Lan Na. For the purposes of the national census, which does not recognise all 62 languages recognised by the Royal Thai Government in the 2011 Country Report, four dialects of Thai exist these partly coincide with regional designations.

The largest of Thailand's minority languages is the Lao dialect of Isan spoken in the northeastern provinces. Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang. [ citation needed ] In the far south, Kelantan-Pattani Malay is the primary language of Malay Muslims. Varieties of Chinese are also spoken by the large Thai Chinese population, with the Teochew dialect best-represented.

Numerous tribal languages are also spoken, including many Austroasiatic languages such as Mon, Khmer, Viet, Mlabri and Orang Asli Austronesian languages such as Cham and Moken Sino-Tibetan languages like Lawa, Akha, and Karen and other Tai languages such as Tai Yo, Phu Thai, and Saek. Hmong is a member of the Hmong–Mien languages, which is now regarded as a language family of its own.

English is a mandatory school subject, but the number of fluent speakers remains low, especially outside cities.


Thailand's most prevalent religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is an integral part of Thai identity and culture. Active participation in Buddhism is among the highest in the world. Thailand has the second-largest number of Buddhists in the world after China. [188] According to the 2000 census, 94.6% and 93.58% in 2010 of the country's population self-identified as Buddhists of the Theravada tradition. Muslims constitute the second largest religious group in Thailand, comprising 4.29% of the population in 2015. [189]

Islam is concentrated mostly in the country's southernmost provinces: Pattani, Yala, Satun, Narathiwat, and part of Songkhla Chumphon, which are predominantly Malay, most of whom are Sunni Muslims. Christians represented 1.17% (2015) of the population in 2015, with the remaining population consisting of Hindus and Sikhs, who live mostly in the country's cities. There is also a small but historically significant Jewish community in Thailand dating back to the 17th century.

The constitution does not name official state religion, and provides for freedom of religion. Even the authority formally does not register new religious groups that have not been accepted and limit the number of missionaries, unregistered religious organisations as well as missionaries who are allowed to operate freely. There have been no widespread reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious belief or practice. [190]

Thailand ranks world's 6th, and Asia's 1st in the 2019 Global Health Security Index of global health security capabilities in 195 countries, [191] making it the only developing country on the world's top ten. Thailand had 62 hospitals accredited by Joint Commission International. [192] In 2002, Bumrungrad became the first hospital in Asia to meet the standard.

Health and medical care is overseen by the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), along with several other non-ministerial government agencies, with total national expenditures on health amounting to 4.3 percent of GDP in 2009. Non-communicable diseases form the major burden of morbidity and mortality, while infectious diseases including malaria and tuberculosis, as well as traffic accidents, are also important public health issues. The current Minister for Public Health is Anutin Charnvirakul.

In December 2018 the interim parliament voted to legalise the use of cannabis for medical reasons. Recreational use remained unlawful. The National Legislative Assembly had 166 votes in favour of the amendment to the Narcotics Bill, while there were no nay votes and 13 abstentions. The vote makes Thailand the first Southeast Asian country to allow the use of medical cannabis. [193]

Thai culture and traditions incorporate a great deal of influence from India, China, Cambodia, and the rest of Southeast Asia. Thailand's national religion, Theravada Buddhism, is central to modern Thai identity. Thai Buddhism has evolved over time to include many regional beliefs originating from Hinduism, animism, as well as ancestor worship. The official calendar in Thailand is based on the Eastern version of the Buddhist Era (BE). Thai identity today is a social construct of Phibun regime in 1940s.

Several ethnic groups mediated change between their traditional local culture, national Thai, and global cultural influences. Overseas Chinese also form a significant part of Thai society, particularly in and around Bangkok. Their successful integration into Thai society has allowed them to hold positions of economic and political power. Thai Chinese businesses prosper as part of the larger bamboo network. [194]

Respects for elderly and superiors (by age, position, monks, or certain professions) is Thai mores. As with other Asian cultures, respect towards ancestors is an essential part of Thai spiritual practice. Thais have strong sense of social hierarchy, reflecting in many classes of honorifics. Elders have by tradition ruled in family decisions or ceremonies. Wai is a traditional Thai greeting, and is generally offered first by person who is younger or lower in social status and position. Older siblings have duties to younger ones. Thais have a strong sense of hospitality and generosity. [ citation needed ]

Taboos in Thai culture include touching someone's head or pointing with the feet, as the head is considered the most sacred and the foot the lowest part of the body.

The origins of Thai art were very much influenced by Buddhist art and by scenes from the Indian epics. Traditional Thai sculpture almost exclusively depicts images of the Buddha, being very similar with the other styles from Southeast Asia. Traditional Thai paintings usually consist of book illustrations, and painted ornamentation of buildings such as palaces and temples. Thai art was influenced by indigenous civilisations of the Mon and other civilisations. By the Sukothai and Ayutthaya period, thai had developed into its own unique style and was later further influenced by the other Asian styles, mostly by Sri Lankan and Chinese. Thai sculpture and painting, and the royal courts provided patronage, erecting temples and other religious shrines as acts of merit or to commemorate important events. [195]

Traditional Thai paintings showed subjects in two dimensions without perspective. The size of each element in the picture reflected its degree of importance. The primary technique of composition is that of apportioning areas: the main elements are isolated from each other by space transformers. This eliminated the intermediate ground, which would otherwise imply perspective. Perspective was introduced only as a result of Western influence in the mid-19th century. Monk artist Khrua In Khong is well known as the first artist to introduce linear perspective to Thai traditional art. [196]

The most frequent narrative subjects for paintings were or are: the Jataka stories, episodes from the life of the Buddha, the Buddhist heavens and hells, themes derived from the Thai versions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata, not to mention scenes of daily life. Some of the scenes are influenced by Thai folklore instead of following strict Buddhist iconography. [195]


Architecture is the preeminent medium of the country's cultural legacy and reflects both the challenges of living in Thailand's sometimes extreme climate as well as, historically, the importance of architecture to the Thai people's sense of community and religious beliefs. Influenced by the architectural traditions of many of Thailand's neighbours, it has also developed significant regional variation within its vernacular and religious buildings.

The Ayutthaya Kingdom movement, which went from approximately 1350 to 1767, was one of the most fruitful and creative periods in Thai architecture The identity of architecture in Ayutthaya period is designed to display might and riches so it has great size and appearance. The temples in Ayutthaya seldom built eaves stretching from the masterhead. The dominant feature of this style is sunlight shining into buildings. During the latter part of the Ayutthaya period, architecture was regarded as a peak achievement that responded to the requirements of people and expressed the gracefulness of Thainess. [197]

Buddhist temples in Thailand are known as "wats", from the Pāḷi vāṭa, meaning an enclosure. A temple has an enclosing wall that divides it from the secular world. Wat architecture has seen many changes in Thailand in the course of history. Although there are many differences in layout and style, they all adhere to the same principles. [198]


Thai literature has had a long history. Even before the establishment of the Sukhothai Kingdom there existed oral and written works.

During the Sukhothai, Most literary works were written in simple prose with certain alliteration schemes. Major works include King Ram Khamhaeng Inscription. King Ram Khamhaeng's Stone Inscription is considered the first Thai literary work in Thai script. It gives an account of the life of King Ramkhamhaeng the Great, the way of life of Thai people in general, laws, religion, economic and political stability. Trai Phum Phra Ruang, was written in 1345 by King Maha Thammaracha I, the fifth king of Sukhothai. It expounds Buddhist philosophy based on a profound and extensive study with reference to over 30 sacred texts. The work could be considered the nation's first piece of research dissertation. It was written in beautiful prose rich in allusions and imagery. It is a treatise on Buddhist cosmology, ethics, biology and belief system. [199]

During the Ayutthaya, The period produced a variety of forms on diverse subjects. New poetic forms were created, with different rhyme schemes and metres. It is common to find a combination of different poetic forms in one poetic work. Lilit Yuan Phai is a narrative poem describing the war between King Borommatrailokkanat of Ayutthaya and Prince Tilokkarat of Lan Na. One of the most beautiful literary works is Kap He Ruea composed by Prince Thammathibet comparing the scenic beauty to that of his beloved lady on a boat journey in the nirat tradition. Traditionally, the verse is sung during the colourful royal barge procession. It has been the model for subsequent poets to emulate. The same prince also composed the greatly admired Kap Ho Khlong on the Visit to Than Thongdaeng and Kap Ho Khlong Nirat Phrabat. [200]

Despite its short period of 15 years, Thon Buri Period produced Ramakian, a verse drama to which King Taksin the Great contributed his poetic talent. The revival of literature at this time is remarkable since the country had not quite recovered from the aftermath of war. Some poets who later became a major force in the early Rattanakosin Period had already begun writing at this time.

During the 18th century Rattanakosin Period. After sporadic fighting at the beginning of the period, the country gradually returned to normal. It is only natural that many of the early Rattanakosin works should deal with war and military strategy. Some examples are Nirat Rop Phama Thi Tha Din Daeng, Phleng Yao Rop Phama Thi Nakhon Si Thammarat.In the performing arts, perhaps the most important dramatic achievement is the complete work of Ramakian by King Rama I. In addition, There were also verse recitals with musical accompaniment, such as Mahori telling the story of Kaki, Sepha relating the story of Khun Chang Khun Phaen. Other recitals include Sri Thanonchai. The most important Thai poet in this period was Sunthorn Phu (สุนทรภู่) (1786–1855), widely known as "the bard of Rattanakosin" (Thai: กวีเอกแห่งกรุงรัตนโกสินทร์ ). Sunthorn Phu is best known for his epic poem Phra Aphai Mani (Thai: พระอภัยมณี ), which he started in 1822 (while in jail) and finished in 1844. Phra Aphai Mani is a versified fantasy-adventure novel, a genre of Siamese literature known as nithan kham klon (Thai: นิทานคำกลอน ). [200]

Music and dance

Aside from folk and regional dances (southern Thailand's Menora (dance) and Ramwong, for example), the two major forms of Thai classical dance drama are Khon and Lakhon nai. In the beginning, both were exclusively court entertainments and it was not until much later that a popular style of dance theatre, likay, evolved as a diversion for common folk who had no access to royal performances. [201]

Folk dance forms include dance theater forms like likay, numerous regional dances (ram), the ritual dance ram muay, and homage to the teacher, wai khru. Both ram muay and wai khru take place before all traditional muay Thai matches. The wai is also an annual ceremony performed by Thai classical dance groups to honor their artistic ancestors.

Thai classical music is synonymous with those stylized court ensembles and repertoires that emerged in their present form within the royal centers of Central Thailand some 800 years ago. These ensembles, while being influenced by older practices are today uniquely Thai expressions. While the three primary classical ensembles, the Piphat, Khrueang sai and Mahori differ in significant ways, they all share a basic instrumentation and theoretical approach. Each employs small ching hand cymbals and krap wooden sticks to mark the primary beat reference. Thai classical music has had a wide influence on the musical traditions of neighboring countries. The traditional music of Myanmar was strongly influenced by the Thai music repertoire, called Yodaya (ယိုးဒယား), which was brought over from the Ayutthaya Kingdom. As Siam expanded its political and cultural influence to Laos and Cambodia during the early Rattanakosin period, its music was quickly absorbed by the Cambodia and Lao courts.


Thai films are exported and exhibited in Southeast Asia. [202] Thai cinema has developed its own unique identity and now being internationally recognized for their culture-driven. [203] Films such as Ong-Bak: Muay Thai Warrior (2003) and Tom-Yum-Goong (2005), starred Tony Jaa, feature distinctive aspects of Thai martial arts "Muay Thai".

Thai horror has always had a significant cult following, unique take on tales from beyond the grave. More recently, horror films such as Shutter (2004), was one of the best-known Thai horror movies and recognized worldwide. [204] Other examples include The Unseeable (2006), Alone (2007), Body (2007), Coming Soon (2008), 4bia (2008), Phobia 2 (2009), Ladda Land (2011), Pee Mak (2013), and The Promise (2017).

Thai heist thriller film Bad Genius (2017), was one of the most internationally successful Thai film, It broke Thai film earning records in several Asian countries, [205] Bad Genius won in 12 categories at the 27th Suphannahong National Film Awards, and also won the Jury Award at the 16th New York Asian Film Festival with a worldwide collection of more than $42 million. [206]

Thailand television dramas, known as Lakorn, Lakorn have become popular in Thailand and its neighbors. [207] Many dramas tend to have a romantic focus, such as Khluen Chiwit, U-Prince, Ugly Duckling, The Crown Princess and teen dramas television series, such as 2gether: The Series, The Gifted, Girl From Nowhere, Hormones: The Series.

The Entertainment industries (film and television) are estimated to have directly contributed $2.1 billion in gross domestic product (GDP) to the Thai economy in 2011. They also directly supported 86,600 jobs. [208] Amongst several Dance-pop artists who have made internationally successful can be mentioned "Lisa" Lalisa Manoban [209] and Tata Young.


Thai cuisine is one of the most popular in the world. [210] [211] Thai food blends five fundamental tastes: sweet, spicy, sour, bitter, and salty. The herbs and spices most used in Thai cooking themselves have medicinal qualities such as garlic, lemongrass, kaffir lime, galangal, turmeric, coriander, coconut milk. [212] Each region of Thailand has its specialities: kaeng khiao wan (green curry) in the central region, som tam (green papaya salad) in the northeast, khao soi in the north, and massaman curry in the south.

In 2017, seven Thai dishes appeared on a list of the "World's 50 Best Foods"— an online worldwide poll by CNN Travel. Thailand had more dishes on the list than any other country. They were: tom yam goong (4th), pad Thai (5th), som tam (6th), massaman curry (10th), green curry (19th), Thai fried rice (24th) and mu nam tok (36th). [213]

The staple food in Thailand is rice, particularly jasmine rice (also known as hom Mali) which forms part of almost every meal. Thailand is a leading exporter of rice, and Thais consume over 100 kg of milled rice per person per year. [214]

Units of measurement

Thailand generally uses the metric system, but traditional units of measurement for land area are used, and imperial units of measurement are occasionally used for building materials, such as wood and plumbing fixtures. Years are numbered as B.E. (Buddhist Era) in educational settings, civil service, government, contracts, and newspaper datelines. However, in banking, and increasingly in industry and commerce, standard Western year (Christian or Common Era) counting is the standard practice. [215]

Muay Thai (Thai: มวยไทย , RTGS: Muai Thai, [muaj tʰaj] , lit. "Thai boxing") is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Muay Thai became widespread internationally in the late-20th to 21st century, when Westernized practitioners from Thailand began competing in kickboxing and mixed rules matches as well as matches under muay Thai rules around the world, Famous practitioners such as Buakaw Banchamek, Samart Payakaroon, Dieselnoi Chor Thanasukarn and Apidej Sit-Hirun. Buakaw Banchamek has probably brought more international interest in Muay Thai than any other Muay Thai fighters ever had. [216]

Association football has overtaken muay Thai as the most widely followed sport in contemporary Thai society. Thailand national football team has played the AFC Asian Cup six times and reached the semifinals in 1972. The country has hosted the Asian Cup twice, in 1972 and in 2007. The 2007 edition was co-hosted together with Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. It is not uncommon to see Thais cheering their favourite English Premier League teams on television and walking around in replica kit. Another widely enjoyed pastime, and once a competitive sport, is kite flying.

Volleyball is rapidly growing as one of the most popular sports. The women's team has often participated in the World Championship, World Cup, and World Grand Prix Asian Championship. They have won the Asian Championship twice and Asian Cup once. By the success of the women's team, the men team has been growing as well.

Takraw (Thai: ตะกร้อ) is a sport native to Thailand, in which the players hit a rattan ball and are only allowed to use their feet, knees, chest, and head to touch the ball. Sepak takraw is a form of this sport which is similar to volleyball. The players must volley a ball over a net and force it to hit the ground on the opponent's side. It is also a popular sport in other countries in Southeast Asia. A rather similar game but played only with the feet is buka ball.

Snooker has enjoyed increasing popularity in Thailand in recent years, with interest in the game being stimulated by the success of Thai snooker player James Wattana in the 1990s. [217] Other notable players produced by the country include Ratchayothin Yotharuck, Noppon Saengkham and Dechawat Poomjaeng. [218]

Rugby is also a growing sport in Thailand with the Thailand national rugby union team rising to be ranked 61st in the world. [219] Thailand became the first country in the world to host an international 80 welterweight rugby tournament in 2005. [220] The national domestic Thailand Rugby Union (TRU) competition includes several universities and services teams such as Chulalongkorn University, Mahasarakham University, Kasetsart University, Prince of Songkla University, Thammasat University, Rangsit University, the Thai Police, the Thai Army, the Thai Navy and the Royal Thai Air Force. Local sports clubs which also compete in the TRU include the British Club of Bangkok, the Southerners Sports Club (Bangkok) and the Royal Bangkok Sports Club.

Thailand has been called the golf capital of Asia [221] as it is a popular destination for golf. The country attracts a large number of golfers from Japan, Korea, Singapore, South Africa, and Western countries who come to play golf in Thailand every year. [222] The growing popularity of golf, especially among the middle classes and immigrants, is evident as there are more than 200 world-class golf courses nationwide, [223] and some of them are chosen to host PGA and LPGA tournaments, such as Amata Spring Country Club, Alpine Golf and Sports Club, Thai Country Club, and Black Mountain Golf Club.

Basketball is a growing sport in Thailand, especially on the professional sports club level. The Chang Thailand Slammers won the 2011 ASEAN Basketball League Championship. [224] The Thailand national basketball team had its most successful year at the 1966 Asian Games where it won the silver medal. [225]

Other sports in Thailand are slowly growing as the country develops its sporting infrastructure. The success in sports like weightlifting and taekwondo at the last two summer Olympic Games has demonstrated that boxing is no longer the only medal option for Thailand.

Sporting venues

The well-known Lumpinee Boxing Stadium originally sited at Rama IV Road near Lumphini Park hosted its final Muay Thai boxing matches on 8 February 2014 after the venue first opened in December 1956. Managed by the Royal Thai Army, the stadium was officially selected for the purpose of muay Thai bouts following a competition that was staged on 15 March 1956. From 11 February 2014, the stadium will relocate to Ram Intra Road, due to the new venue's capacity to accommodate audiences of up to 3,500. Foreigners typically pay between 1,000 and 2,000 baht to view a match, with prices depending on the location of the seating. [226]

Thammasat Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Bangkok. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 25,000. It is on Thammasat University's Rangsit campus. It was built for the 1998 Asian Games by construction firm Christiani and Nielsen, the same company that constructed the Democracy Monument in Bangkok.

Rajamangala National Stadium is the biggest sporting arena in Thailand. It currently has a capacity of 65,000. It is in Bang Kapi, Bangkok. The stadium was built in 1998 for the 1998 Asian Games and is the home stadium of the Thailand national football team.


Telephone Services

Since September 1, 2006 all telephone numbers in Thailand have ten digits including the area code. The international dialing code for Thailand is 66 and you must drop the 0 from the area code. International direct connections (IDD) to almost every country are provided by the Communication Authority of Thailand (CAT). For directory assistance in the great Bangkok Metropolitan area, dial 13. For directory assistance in the provincial areas, dial 183. For operator-assisted long distance calls, dial 101 for domestic calls, 100 for international calls.

Mobile Phones

Using your mobile phone in Thailand shouldn't be a problem if you arrange for international roaming in your home country. Normally the phone charge is calculated from your home country to the destination number and can be very expensive. True, AIS, DTAC are the leading service providers. If you will be staying in Thailand for a while, it is worth considering purchasing a SIM card with a prepaid option &ndash it&rsquos much less expensive than roaming as well as making it easier for local parties to reach you. Cards to upload credit are available from convenience stores (e.g. 7/11) nationwide. A good place to buy a local SIM card or handset is MBK, where an entire floor is dedicated to mobile communications.

IDD (International direct dialing)

Available from most hotels. Check rates, hotels often levy a surcharge. Costs vary with the time of day and charge for a minimum of 1 minute) Dial 100 for Operator-Assisted Overseas. For IDD dial 001 followed by country and regional codes.

Public Telephones

Public telephones are found throughout town. International calls can be made at those marked as international phones which are found at the airport and most tourist areas, and generally take credit cards or calling cards which are available at convenience stores.


Most hotels and serviced apartments have internet access, either directly from the room if you plug in your laptop or from their business centre. Charges vary, additional surcharges times may apply, so check first. There are also internet cafes in most shopping areas, which are generally expensive. Connections, however, can be slower than in your home country. As for internet service providers, there are 18 commercial ISPs and a number of non-commercial providers with services ranging from 56K dial-up to ISDN broadband. Both prepaid and subscriptions options are available.

Postal Services

Thailand's postal services are generally reliant and efficient. Post offices are usually open Mondays to Fridays from 8am to 4.30pm, some are open Saturday 8.30am to 12.00. Normal postal delivery and collection services are made twice a day - morning and afternoon. However, some areas are only serviced once a day. Several individual shops offer reliable postal services, but add a small service fee on top of the regular postage. Major hotels provide basic postal services on their premises. International courier services are also available and include DHL, Federal Express, TNT, UPS and Air Borne.

Fax Service

Facsimile services are provided at major hotels and otherwise found at business service centres throughout town.

Time Zone

Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +7 hours.


Thailand is quite generous when it comes to national holidays many of which are regulated by the lunar calendar, meaning the actual date changes from one year to the next.

  • Jan 1 &ndash New Year&rsquos Day
  • Feb (full moon) &ndash Makha Buja
  • April 6 &ndash Chakri Day
  • April 13-15 &ndash Songkran (Thai New Year)
  • May 1 &ndash Labour Day
  • May 5 &ndash Coronation Day
  • May (full moon) &ndash Visakha Buja
  • July (full moon) &ndash Asanha Buja
  • Aug 12 &ndash Mother&rsquos Day
  • Oct 23 &ndash Chulalongkorn (Rama V) Day
  • Dec 5 &ndash Father&rsquos Day
  • Dec 10 &ndash Constitution Day
  • Dec 31 &ndash New Year&rsquos Eve

Business Hours

The business hours in Thailand vary according to the type of business. Shopping Malls usually open around 10:00 and close between 20:00 and 22:00. Banks open from 9:00 to 15:30 (Mon-Fri), except those located inside shopping malls which open and close a bit later, but usually no later than 10:30 &ndash 20:00 (daily). Smaller businesses have individual hours. Pubs and bars open at different times but close at 01:00, except those located in the designated entertainment zones. Government offices open at 8:30 and close at 4:30, with one-hour lunch break from noon to 13:00.

Alcohol Sales

The sale of alcohol is heavily regulated in Thailand. You can only buy between 11:00 &ndash 14:00 and 17:00 &ndash midnight, no alcohol sale is allowed on the King&rsquos or Queen&rsquos birthdays, election weekends and special religious holidays.


Mosquito bites are annoying enough in themselves, but on top of that, some tropical diseases are insect borne, so applying mosquito repellent after sunset is a must. Gastro enteric problems are among the most common ailments visitors to Thailand complain about. These are generally the result of consuming contaminated food or water, so be careful about where and what you eat.

A funny stomach can also be related to the change of climate. Remember, Thailand is a tropical country and the extreme heat and humidity can affect your overall well-being. In order to avoid dehydration, make sure you drink plenty of water. You'll see that the locals love their drinks with ice, even beer! But you might want to avoid ice cubes or crushed ice, due to possible contamination, and stick with bottled drinks, which are available in most places. Alternatively carry your own.

You'll also find that there is an abundance of food at all times both at day and night. If you eat at any of the roadside stalls, check that your food is freshly prepared in front of you, and you hopefully won't have any problems.


Thai (official). English is fairly widely understood and spoken in most tourist areas. Bilingual Thai / English road signs are found on all road signs, BTS Skytrain and MRT Subway stations and some local buses.

Thai Cultural Etiquette

The Thai Royal Family are deeply revered, and you will see portraits of them throughout the country. At the cinema you must stand for the royal anthem before the film is screened. Anger is regarded as crude and lacking in self discipline. Remain calm and smile and you will find all sorts of doors opened. It is considered rude to point your foot at a person or object. Thais regard the head as the highest part of the body and do not appreciate anyone touching them there, even as a friendly gesture. You should dress appropriately when visiting temples. Don't go shirtless, in shorts, hot pants, short skirts or spaghetti straps. Remove your shoes when entering a Thai home or Buddhist temple. Buddha images large or small, ruined or not, are regarded as sacred. Don't take photographs or do anything which might indicate a lack of respect. While on the rise in Bangkok, extreme public displays of affection are often frowned upon. By all means, hold hands if the urge takes you.

Emergency Phone Numbers

Let's hope you will never be in a situation where you require emergency services, but in case you do, rest assured, Bangkok's numerous hospitals can provide help in urgent situations.

9. Bangkok’s ceremonial name is one of the longest names in the world

Not only is the Thai capital Thailand’s largest city but one-tenth of the entire Thai population live in Bangkok. Made up of Pali and Sanskrit root words, Bangkok’s ceremonial name is, ‘Krungthepmahanakhon Amonrattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilokphop Noppharatratchathaniburirom Udomratchaniwetmahasathan Amonphimanawatansathit Sakkathattiyawitsanukamprasit.’ Phew! What a mouthful. The name means, ‘City of angels, great city of immortals, magnificent city of the nine gems, seat of the king, city of royal palaces, home of gods incarnate, erected by Visvakarman at Indra‘s behest.’

Death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej

2016 October - King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the world's longest reigning monarch, dies at the age of 88 after 70 years on the throne.

2016 - December - Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn is proclaimed king.

2017 April - King Vajiralongkorn signs the new, military-drafted constitution that paves the way for a return to democracy.

2019 March - General election sees former general Prayut Chan-o-cha returned to power as prime minister.

2019 November - Suspected separatists kill at least 15 people in southern Thailand, in one of the country's worst attacks in years.