Everything you wanted to know about Vermont, history, economy people and more - History

Everything you wanted to know about Vermont, history, economy people and more - History


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Newcastle

Postal Abbreviation: VT
Natives: Vermonter

Population 2019: 623,989
Legal Driving Age: 18
(*Younger w/ Driver's Ed.)
Age of Majority: 18
Median Age: 41.5

State Song: “Hail, Vermont”
By: Josephine Hovey Perry

Median Household Income:$60,076

Capital..... Montpelier
Entered Union..... Mar. 4, 1791 (14th)

Present Constitution Adopted: 1793

Nickname: Green Mountain State

Motto:
“Vermont, Freedom, and Unity”

Origin of Name:
From the French for “green mountain”.

USS Vermont

Railroad Stations

Vermont Economy

AGRICULTURE: apples, cattle cheese,
eggs, maple syrup, milk, wood.

MINING: sand and gravel.

MANUFACTURING: electronics, food
processing, lumber products,
machinery, metal products,
paper products


Vermont Geography

Total Area: 9,615 sq. miles
Land area: 9,249 sq. miles
Water Area: 366 sq. miles
Geographic Center: Washington
3 mi. E of Roxbury
Highest Point: Mount Mansfield
(4,393 ft.)
Lowest Point: Lake Champlain
(95 ft.)
Highest Recorded Temp.: 105˚ F (7/4/1911)
Lowest Recorded Temp.: –50˚ F (12/30/1933)

The Green Mountain's divide the state almost in the middle. The highest is Mansfield Mountain with a height of 4,363 feet. The Connecticut River provides most of the eastern border of the state.

Cities

Burlington, 42,899
Essex, 19,587
South Burlington, 17,993
Colchester 17,067
Rutland, 16,495
Bennington 15,764
Brattleboro 12,046
Milton, 10,352
Hartford, 9,952
Springfield, 9,078
Barre, 9,052
Williston, 8,698
Middlebury, 8,496

Vermont History

1666 The French built their first settlement, Forte Saint Anne on an island in
Lake Champlain.
1724 The British established Fort Dummer in the South east part of the state.
1762 The first church was established Bennington.
1769 Dartmouth College was established.
1775 Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga.
1777 Vermont become the first state to outlaw slavery.
American troops defeated General Burgoyne at Bennington.
1791 Vermont was admitted to the Union as the 14th state.
1805 The capital of Vermont become Montpelier.
1923 President Coolidge is sworn in at his fathers farm in Plymouth Notch after the death of President Warren Harding.

Famous People


Chester A. Arthur
Calvin Coolidge
George Dewey
John Dewey
Stephen A. Douglas
Willbur Fisk
Elisha Otis
Joseph Smith
Brigham Young

Vermont National Sites

1) Marsh - Billings - Rockefeller National Historical Park
Walk through one of Vermont's most beautiful landscapes, under the shade of sugar maples and 400-year-old hemlocks, across covered bridges and alongside rambling stone walls. This is a landscape of loss, recovery, and conservation. This is a story of stewardship, of people taking care of places - sharing an enduring connection to land and a sense of hope for the future..


Ben Carson says MLK 'would be offended' after Vermont Gov. Scott defines vaccine eligibility by race

Ben Carson: If MLK was here today he would be 'absolutely offended'

Former HUD secretary on the 'dangerous' politicization of COVID-19 vaccines on 'Hannity'

Former Housing and Urban Development Secretary Dr. Ben Carson criticized Vermont Republican Gov. Phil Scott as the latest patron of "identity politics" after he announced the coronavirus vaccine will soon be available to non-White households on "Hannity."

CARSON: This whole identity politics stuff is poisonous. If Martin Luther King were here today, he would be absolutely offended. He wanted people to be judged by their character and not by the color of their skin -- and here we are doing everything we possibly can to separate people on the basis of race, religion, gender, whatever things that we can find.

Instead of the United States, we're becoming the Divided States. And a house divided against itself cannot stand. It is the most ridiculous policy, and I hope that the state of Vermont will very seriously reconsider. And we need to start looking at our population in terms of who needs what, and working on the basis of need rather than on the basis of superficial identifying qualities.


Mechanical devices faced some obvious restrictions. You couldn’t transmit sound over long distances. The sound didn’t come out perfectly. You couldn’t transmit through certain media. And you needed to be physically connected to the other “telephone”.

Inventors knew there had to be a better way. Starting in the 1800s, inventors like Francisco Salva Campillo and Alexander Graham Bell started trying to develop electrical telephones.

Electrical telephones sought to combine the audio transmission technology of mechanical acoustic devices with the long-distance electrical data transmission of the electrical telegraph.

But first, inventors had to create better electrical telegraphs.

In 1804, Catalan scientist and inventor Francisco Salva Campillo created an electrochemical telegraph. In 1832, Baron Schilling improved upon the device. Two German inventors created their own electromagnetic telegraph in 1833. The first working electrical telegraph, however, wasn’t put into place until April 1839 when it was constructed on the Great Western Railway in England.

In 1837, Samuel Morse independently developed his own electrical telegraph and patented the invention in America. His assistant, Alfred Vail, created a Morse code signaling alphabet that could be used to transmit messages electronically. By 1838, Morse had sent America’s first telegram.

Why did we need electrical telegraphs before the telephone? Well, both the telephone and the telegraph are wire-based electrical systems. The telegraph also paved the way for later telephone inventors. As About.com explains, “Alexander Graham Bell’s success with the telephone came as a direct result of his attempts to improve the telegraph.”

By the time Bell began experimenting with using electrical signals to send audio data, the telegraph has been an established means of communication for nearly three decades.


Economy

Until 1979, when Banaba’s deposit of phosphate rock was exhausted, Kiribati’s economy depended heavily on the export of that mineral. Before the cessation of mining, a large reserve fund was accumulated the interest now contributes to government revenue. Other revenue earners are copra, mostly produced in the village economy, and license fees from foreign fishing fleets, including a special tuna-fishing agreement with the European Union. Commercial seaweed farming has become an important economic activity.

An Exclusive Economic Zone of 1,350,000 square miles (3,500,000 square km) is claimed. A small manufacturing sector produces clothing, furniture, and beverages for domestic consumption and sea salt for export. The country’s proximity to the Equator makes it a desirable location for satellite telemetry and spacecraft-launching facilities several national and transnational space authorities have built or have proposed building facilities on the islands or in surrounding waters. Such projects bring capital, additional employment, and infrastructure improvements, but Kiribati continues to depend on foreign aid for most capital and development expenditure. Food accounts for about one-third of all imports, most of which come from Australia, Japan, and Singapore Japan and Thailand are the major export destinations. Although South Tarawa has an extensive wage economy, most of the people living on outer islands are subsistence farmers with small incomes from copra, fishing, or handicrafts. These are supplemented by remittances from relatives working elsewhere. Interisland shipping is provided by the government, and most islands are linked by a domestic air service. Tarawa and Kiritimati have major airports.


Everything You Wanted to Know About Data Mining but Were Afraid to Ask

Big data is everywhere we look these days. Businesses are falling all over themselves to hire 'data scientists,' privacy advocates are concerned about personal data and control, and technologists and entrepreneurs scramble to find new ways to collect, control and monetize data. We know that data is powerful and valuable. But how?

This article is an attempt to explain how data mining works and why you should care about it. Because when we think about how our data is being used, it is crucial to understand the power of this practice. Without data mining, when you give someone access to information about you, all they know is what you have told them. With data mining, they know what you have told them and can guess a great deal more. Put another way, data mining allows companies and governments to use the information you provide to reveal more than you think.

To most of us data mining goes something like this: tons of data is collected, then quant wizards work their arcane magic, and then they know all of this amazing stuff. But, how? And what types of things can they know? Here is the truth: despite the fact that the specific technical functioning of data mining algorithms is quite complex -- they are a black box unless you are a professional statistician or computer scientist -- the uses and capabilities of these approaches are, in fact, quite comprehensible and intuitive.

For the most part, data mining tells us about very large and complex data sets, the kinds of information that would be readily apparent about small and simple things. For example, it can tell us that "one of these things is not like the other" a la Sesame Street or it can show us categories and then sort things into pre-determined categories. But what's simple with 5 datapoints is not so simple with 5 billion datapoints.

And these days, there's always more data. We gather far more of it then we can digest. Nearly every transaction or interaction leaves a data signature that someone somewhere is capturing and storing. This is, of course, true on the internet but, ubiquitous computing and digitization has made it increasingly true about our lives away from our computers (do we still have those?). The sheer scale of this data has far exceeded human sense-making capabilities. At these scales patterns are often too subtle and relationships too complex or multi-dimensional to observe by simply looking at the data. Data mining is a means of automating part this process to detect interpretable patterns it helps us see the forest without getting lost in the trees.

Discovering information from data takes two major forms: description and prediction. At the scale we are talking about, it is hard to know what the data shows. Data mining is used to simplify and summarize the data in a manner that we can understand, and then allow us to infer things about specific cases based on the patterns we have observed. Of course, specific applications of data mining methods are limited by the data and computing power available, and are tailored for specific needs and goals. However, there are several main types of pattern detection that are commonly used. These general forms illustrate what data mining can do.

Anomaly detection : in a large data set it is possible to get a picture of what the data tends to look like in a typical case. Statistics can be used to determine if something is notably different from this pattern. For instance, the IRS could model typical tax returns and use anomaly detection to identify specific returns that differ from this for review and audit.

Association learning: This is the type of data mining that drives the Amazon recommendation system. For instance, this might reveal that customers who bought a cocktail shaker and a cocktail recipe book also often buy martini glasses. These types of findings are often used for targeting coupons/deals or advertising. Similarly, this form of data mining (albeit a quite complex version) is behind Netflix movie recommendations.

Cluster detection: one type of pattern recognition that is particularly useful is recognizing distinct clusters or sub-categories within the data. Without data mining, an analyst would have to look at the data and decide on a set of categories which they believe captures the relevant distinctions between apparent groups in the data. This would risk missing important categories. With data mining it is possible to let the data itself determine the groups. This is one of the black-box type of algorithms that are hard to understand. But in a simple example - again with purchasing behavior - we can imagine that the purchasing habits of different hobbyists would look quite different from each other: gardeners, fishermen and model airplane enthusiasts would all be quite distinct. Machine learning algorithms can detect all of the different subgroups within a dataset that differ significantly from each other.

Classification: If an existing structure is already known, data mining can be used to classify new cases into these pre-determined categories. Learning from a large set of pre-classified examples, algorithms can detect persistent systemic differences between items in each group and apply these rules to new classification problems. Spam filters are a great example of this - large sets of emails that have been identified as spam have enabled filters to notice differences in word usage between legitimate and spam messages, and classify incoming messages according to these rules with a high degree of accuracy.

Regression: Data mining can be used to construct predictive models based on many variables. Facebook, for example, might be interested in predicting future engagement for a user based on past behavior. Factors like the amount of personal information shared, number of photos tagged, friend requests initiated or accepted, comments, likes etc. could all be included in such a model. Over time, this model could be honed to include or weight things differently as Facebook compares how the predictions differ from observed behavior. Ultimately these findings could be used to guide design in order to encourage more of the behaviors that seem to lead to increased engagement over time.

The patterns detected and structures revealed by the descriptive data mining are then often applied to predict other aspects of the data. Amazon offers a useful example of how descriptive findings are used for prediction. The (hypothetical) association between cocktail shaker and martini glass purchases, for instance, could be used, along with many other similar associations, as part of a model predicting the likelihood that a particular user will make a particular purchase. This model could match all such associations with a user's purchasing history, and predict which products they are most likely to purchase. Amazon can then serve ads based on what that user is most likely to buy.

Data mining, in this way, can grant immense inferential power. If an algorithm can correctly classify a case into known category based on limited data, it is possible to estimate a wide-range of other information about that case based on the properties of all the other cases in that category. This may sound dry, but it is how most successful Internet companies make their money and from where they draw their power.


Contents

Three species of maple trees are predominantly used to produce maple syrup: the sugar maple (Acer saccharum), the black maple (A. nigrum), and the red maple (A. rubrum), [6] because of the high sugar content (roughly two to five percent) in the sap of these species. [7] The black maple is included as a subspecies or variety in a more broadly viewed concept of A. saccharum, the sugar maple, by some botanists. [8] Of these, the red maple has a shorter season because it buds earlier than sugar and black maples, which alters the flavour of the sap. [9]

A few other species of maple (Acer) are also sometimes used as sources of sap for producing maple syrup, including the box elder or Manitoba maple (Acer negundo), [10] the silver maple (A. saccharinum), [11] and the bigleaf maple (A. macrophyllum). [12] In the Southeastern United States, Florida sugar maple (Acer floridanum) is occasionally used for maple syrup production. [13]

Similar syrups may also be produced from walnut, birch, or palm trees, among other sources. [14] [15] [16]

Indigenous peoples Edit

Indigenous peoples living in northeastern North America were the first groups known to have produced maple syrup and maple sugar. According to aboriginal oral traditions, as well as archaeological evidence, maple tree sap was being processed into syrup long before Europeans arrived in the region. [17] [18] There are no authenticated accounts of how maple syrup production and consumption began, [19] but various legends exist one of the most popular involves maple sap being used in place of water to cook venison served to a chief. [18] Aboriginal tribes developed rituals around sugar-making, celebrating the Sugar Moon (the first full moon of spring) with a Maple Dance. [20] Many aboriginal dishes replaced the salt traditional in European cuisine with maple sugar or syrup. [18]

The Algonquians recognized maple sap as a source of energy and nutrition. At the beginning of the spring thaw, they made V-shaped incisions in tree trunks they then inserted reeds or concave pieces of bark to run the sap into buckets, which were often made from birch bark. [19] The maple sap was concentrated either by dropping hot cooking stones into the buckets [21] or by leaving them exposed to the cold temperatures overnight and disposing of the layer of ice that formed on top. [19]

European colonists Edit

In the early stages of European colonization in northeastern North America, local Indigenous peoples showed the arriving colonists how to tap the trunks of certain types of maples during the spring thaw to harvest the sap. [22] André Thevet, the "Royal Cosmographer of France", wrote about Jacques Cartier drinking maple sap during his Canadian voyages. [23] By 1680, European settlers and fur traders were involved in harvesting maple products. [24] However, rather than making incisions in the bark, the Europeans used the method of drilling tapholes in the trunks with augers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, processed maple sap was used primarily as a source of concentrated sugar, in both liquid and crystallized-solid form, as cane sugar had to be imported from the West Indies. [19] [20]

Maple sugaring parties typically began to operate at the start of the spring thaw in regions of woodland with sufficiently large numbers of maples. [22] Syrup makers first bored holes in the trunks, usually more than one hole per large tree they then inserted wooden spouts into the holes and hung a wooden bucket from the protruding end of each spout to collect the sap. The buckets were commonly made by cutting cylindrical segments from a large tree trunk and then hollowing out each segment's core from one end of the cylinder, creating a seamless, watertight container. [19] Sap filled the buckets, and was then either transferred to larger holding vessels (barrels, large pots, or hollowed-out wooden logs), often mounted on sledges or wagons pulled by draft animals, or carried in buckets or other convenient containers. [25] The sap-collection buckets were returned to the spouts mounted on the trees, and the process was repeated for as long as the flow of sap remained "sweet". The specific weather conditions of the thaw period were, and still are, critical in determining the length of the sugaring season. [26] As the weather continues to warm, a maple tree's normal early spring biological process eventually alters the taste of the sap, making it unpalatable, perhaps due to an increase in amino acids. [11]

The boiling process was very time-consuming. The harvested sap was transported back to the party's base camp, where it was then poured into large vessels (usually made from metal) and boiled to achieve the desired consistency. [19] The sap was usually transported using large barrels pulled by horses or oxen to a central collection point, where it was processed either over a fire built out in the open or inside a shelter built for that purpose (the "sugar shack"). [19] [27]

Since 1850 Edit

Around the time of the American Civil War (1861–1865), syrup makers started using large, flat sheet metal pans as they were more efficient for boiling than heavy, rounded iron kettles, because of a greater surface area for evaporation. [27] Around this time, cane sugar replaced maple sugar as the dominant sweetener in the US as a result, producers focused marketing efforts on maple syrup. The first evaporator, used to heat and concentrate sap, was patented in 1858. In 1872, an evaporator was developed that featured two pans and a metal arch or firebox, which greatly decreased boiling time. [19] Around 1900, producers bent the tin that formed the bottom of a pan into a series of flues, which increased the heated surface area of the pan and again decreased boiling time. Some producers also added a finishing pan, a separate batch evaporator, as a final stage in the evaporation process. [27]

Buckets began to be replaced with plastic bags, which allowed people to see at a distance how much sap had been collected. Syrup producers also began using tractors to haul vats of sap from the trees being tapped (the sugarbush) to the evaporator. Some producers adopted motor-powered tappers and metal tubing systems to convey sap from the tree to a central collection container, but these techniques were not widely used. [19] Heating methods also diversified: modern producers use wood, oil, natural gas, propane, or steam to evaporate sap. [27] Modern filtration methods were perfected to prevent contamination of the syrup. [28]

A large number of technological changes took place during the 1970s. Plastic tubing systems that had been experimental since the early part of the century were perfected, and the sap came directly from the tree to the evaporator house. [29] Vacuum pumps were added to the tubing systems, and preheaters were developed to recycle heat lost in the steam. Producers developed reverse-osmosis machines to take a portion of water out of the sap before it was boiled, increasing processing efficiency. [19]

Improvements in tubing and vacuum pumps, new filtering techniques, "supercharged" preheaters, and better storage containers have since been developed. Research continues on pest control and improved woodlot management. [19] In 2009, researchers at the University of Vermont unveiled a new type of tap that prevents backflow of sap into the tree, reducing bacterial contamination and preventing the tree from attempting to heal the bore hole. [30] Experiments show that it may be possible to use saplings in a plantation instead of mature trees, dramatically boosting productivity per acre. [31] As a result of the smaller tree diameter, milder diurnal temperature swings are needed for the tree to freeze and thaw, which enables sap production in milder climatic conditions outside of northeastern North America. [32]

Open pan evaporation methods have been streamlined since colonial days, but remain basically unchanged. Sap must first be collected and boiled down to obtain syrup. Maple syrup is made by boiling between 20 and 50 volumes of sap (depending on its concentration) over an open fire until 1 volume of syrup is obtained, usually at a temperature 4.1 °C (7.4 °F) over the boiling point of water. As the boiling point of water varies with changes in air pressure the correct value for pure water is determined at the place where the syrup is being produced, each time evaporation is begun and periodically throughout the day. [27] [33] Syrup can be boiled entirely over one heat source or can be drawn off into smaller batches and boiled at a more controlled temperature. [34] Defoamers are often added during boiling. [35]

Boiling the syrup is a tightly controlled process, which ensures appropriate sugar content. Syrup boiled too long will eventually crystallize, whereas under-boiled syrup will be watery, and will quickly spoil. The finished syrup has a density of 66° on the Brix scale (a hydrometric scale used to measure sugar solutions). [36] The syrup is then filtered to remove precipitated "sugar sand", crystals made up largely of sugar and calcium malate. [37] These crystals are not toxic, but create a "gritty" texture in the syrup if not filtered out. [38]

In addition to open pan evaporation methods, many large producers use the more fuel efficient reverse osmosis procedure to separate the water from the sap. [39] Smaller producers can also use batchwise recirculating reverse osmosis, with the most energy-efficient operation taking the sugar concentration to 25% prior to boiling. [40]

The higher the sugar content of the sap, the smaller the volume of sap is needed to obtain the same amount of syrup. 57 units of sap with 1.5 percent sugar content will yield 1 unit of syrup, but only 25 units of sap with a 3.5 percent sugar content are needed to obtain one unit of syrup. [41] The sap's sugar content is highly variable and will fluctuate even within the same tree. [42]

The filtered syrup is graded and packaged while still hot, usually at a temperature of 82 °C (180 °F) or greater. The containers are turned over after being sealed to sterilize the cap with the hot syrup. Packages can be made of metal, glass, or coated plastic, depending on volume and target market. [43] The syrup can also be heated longer and further processed to create a variety of other maple products, including maple sugar, maple butter or cream, and maple candy or taffy. [44]

Off-flavours Edit

Off-flavours can sometimes develop during the production of maple syrup, resulting from contaminants in the boiling apparatus (such as disinfectants), microorganisms, fermentation products, metallic can flavours, and "buddy sap", an off-flavour occurring late in the syrup season when tree budding has begun. [45] [46] In some circumstances, it is possible to remove off-flavours through processing. [45] [47]

Maple syrup production is centred in northeastern North America however, given the correct weather conditions, it can be made wherever suitable species of maple trees grow, such as New Zealand, where there are efforts to establish commercial production. [48]

A maple syrup production farm is called a "sugarbush" or "sugarwood". Sap is often boiled in a "sugar house" (also known as a "sugar shack", "sugar shanty", or cabane à sucre), a building louvered at the top to vent the steam from the boiling sap. [49]

Maples are usually tapped beginning at 30 to 40 years of age. Each tree can support between one and three taps, depending on its trunk diameter. The average maple tree will produce 35 to 50 litres (9.2 to 13.2 US gal) of sap per season, up to 12 litres (3.2 US gal) per day. [50] This is roughly equal to seven percent of its total sap. Seasons last for four to eight weeks, depending on the weather. [51] The timing of the season and the region of maximum sap flow are both expected to be significantly altered by climate change by 2100. [52]

During the day, starch stored in the roots for the winter rises through the trunk as sugary sap, allowing it to be tapped. [26] Sap is not tapped at night because the temperature drop inhibits sap flow, although taps are typically left in place overnight. [53] Some producers also tap in autumn, though this practice is less common than spring tapping. Maples can continue to be tapped for sap until they are over 100 years old. [50]

Until the 1930s, the United States produced most of the world's maple syrup. [54] Today, after rapid growth in the 1990s, Canada produces more than 80 percent of the world's maple syrup, producing about 73 million kg (80,000 short tons) in 2016. [2] The vast majority of this comes from the province of Quebec, which is the world's largest producer, with about 70 percent of global production. [2] [3] Canada exported more than C$362 million of maple syrup in 2016. [3] In 2015, 64 percent of Canadian maple syrup exports went to the United States (a value of C$229 million), 8 percent to Germany (C$31 million), 6 percent to Japan (C$26 million), and 5 percent to the United Kingdom (C$16 million). [55]

In 2015, Quebec accounts for 90.83 percent of maple syrup produced in Canada, followed by New Brunswick at 4.83 percent, Ontario at 4.14 percent, and Nova Scotia at 0.2 percent. [55] However, 94.28 percent of exported Canadian maple syrup originated from Quebec, whereas 4.91 percent of exported syrup originated from New Brunswick, and the remaining 0.81 percent from all other provinces. [55] Ontario holds the most maple syrup farms in Canada outside of Quebec, with 2,240 maple syrup producers in 2011. [55] This is followed by New Brunswick, with 191 maple syrup producers and Nova Scotia, with 152 maple syrup producers. [55]

As of 2016, Quebec had some 7,300 producers working with 13,500 farmers, collectively making over 8 million US gallons (30 million litres) of syrup. [2] [55] Production in Quebec is controlled through a supply management system, with producers receiving quota allotments from the government sanctioned Federation of Quebec Maple Syrup Producers (Fédération des producteurs acéricoles du Québec, FPAQ), which also maintains reserves of syrup, [2] [56] although there is a black-market trade in Quebec product. [2] [57] [58] In 2017, the FPAQ mandated increased output of maple syrup production, attempting to establish Quebec's dominance in the world market. [2] [3]

The Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan produce maple syrup using the sap of the box elder or Manitoba maple (Acer negundo). [10] In 2011, there were 67 maple syrup producers in Manitoba, and 24 in Saskatchewan. [55] A Manitoba maple tree's yield is usually less than half that of a similar sugar maple tree. [59] Manitoba maple syrup has a slightly different flavour from sugar-maple syrup, because it contains less sugar and the tree's sap flows more slowly. British Columbia is home to a growing maple sugar industry using sap from the bigleaf maple, which is native to the West Coast of the United States and Canada. [60] In 2011, there were 82 maple syrup producers in British Columbia. [55]

Vermont is the biggest US producer, with over 1.32 million US gallons (5.0 million litres) during the 2013 season, followed by New York with 574,000 US gal (2.17 million L) and Maine with 450,000 US gal (1.7 million L). Wisconsin, Ohio, New Hampshire, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Connecticut all produced marketable quantities of maple syrup of less than 265,000 US gal (1.0 million L) each in 2013. [61] As of 2003, Vermont produced about 5.5 percent of the global syrup supply. [62]

Maple syrup has been produced on a small scale in some other countries, notably Japan and South Korea. [63] However, in South Korea in particular, it is traditional to consume maple sap, called gorosoe, instead of processing it into syrup. [64]

Under Canadian Maple Product Regulations, containers of maple syrup must include the words "maple syrup", its grade name and net quantity in litres or millilitres, on the main display panel with a minimum font size of 1.6 mm. [65] [66] If the maple syrup is of Canada Grade A level, the name of the colour class must appear on the label in both English and French. [65] Also, the lot number or production code, and either: (1) the name and address of the sugar bush establishment, packing or shipper establishment, or (2) the first dealer and the registration number of the packing establishment, must be labeled on any display panel other than the bottom. [65] [66]

Following an effort from the International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) and many maple syrup producer associations, both Canada and the United States have altered their laws regarding the classification of maple syrup to be uniform. Whereas in the past each state or province had their own laws on the classification of maple syrup, now those laws define a unified grading system. This had been a work in progress for several years, and most of the finalization of the new grading system was made in 2014. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) announced in the Canada Gazette on 28 June 2014 that rules for the sale of maple syrup would be amended to include new descriptors, at the request of the IMSI. [67]

As of December 31, 2014, the CFIA [67] and as of March 2, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service [68] issued revised standards intended to harmonize Canada-United States regulations on the classification of maple syrup as follows:

  • Grade A
    • Golden Colour and Delicate Taste
    • Amber Colour and Rich Taste
    • Dark Colour and Robust Taste
    • Very Dark Colour and Strong Taste

    As long as maple syrup does not have an off-flavour, is of a uniform colour, and is free from turbidity and sediment, it can be labelled as one of the A grades. If it exhibits any problems, it does not meet Grade A requirements, and then must be labelled as Processing Grade maple syrup and may not be sold in containers smaller than 5 US gallons (20 l). [67] [68] If maple syrup does not meet the requirements of Processing Grade maple syrup (including a fairly characteristic maple taste), it is classified as Substandard. [67] [68]

    This grading system was accepted and made law by most maple-producing states and provinces, and became compulsory in Canada as of 13 December 2016. [69] Vermont, in an effort to "jump-start" the new grading regulations, adopted the new grading system as of January 1, 2014, after the grade changes passed the Senate and House in 2013. Maine passed a bill to take effect as soon as both Canada and the United States adopted the new grades. In New York, the new grade changes became law on January 1, 2015. New Hampshire did not require legislative approval and so the new grade laws became effective as of December 16, 2014, and producer compliance was required as of January 1, 2016. [70]

    Golden and Amber grades typically have a milder flavour than Dark and Very dark, which are both dark and have an intense maple flavour. [71] The darker grades of syrup are used primarily for cooking and baking, although some specialty dark syrups are produced for table use. [72] Syrup harvested earlier in the season tends to yield a lighter colour. [73] With the new grading system, the classification of maple syrup depends ultimately on its internal transmittance at 560 nm wavelength through a 10 mm sample. Golden must have 75 percent or more transmittance, Amber must have 50.0 to 74.9 percent transmittance, Dark must have 25.0 to 49.9 percent transmittance, and Very Dark is any product having less than 25.0 percent transmittance. [68]

    Old grading system Edit

    In Canada, maple syrup was classified prior to December 31, 2014, by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) as one of three grades, each with several colour classes: [67]

    Producers in Ontario or Quebec may have followed either federal or provincial grading guidelines. [67] Quebec's and Ontario's guidelines differed slightly from the federal:

    • there were two "number" categories in Quebec
      • Number 1, with four colour classes, and
      • Number 2, with five colour classes. [74]
      • Number 1, with three colour classes and
      • Number 2, with one colour class, which was typically referred to as "Ontario Amber" when produced and sold in that province only. [75]

      A typical year's yield for a maple syrup producer will be about 25 to 30 percent of each of the #1 colours, 10 percent #2 Amber, and 2 percent #3 Dark. [36]

      The United States used different grading standards ⁠— ⁠some states still do as they await state regulation. Maple syrup was divided into two major grades:

      • Grade A:
        • Light Amber (sometimes known as Fancy),
        • Medium Amber, and
        • Dark Amber. and,

        In Massachusetts, the Grade B was renamed as Grade A Very Dark, Strong Taste. [76]

        The Vermont Agency of Agriculture Food and Markets used a similar grading system of colour, and is roughly equivalent, especially for lighter syrups, but using letters: "AA", "A", etc. [77] [78] The Vermont grading system differed from the US system in maintaining a slightly higher standard of product density (measured on the Baumé scale). New Hampshire maintained a similar standard, but not a separate state grading scale. The Vermont-graded product had 0.9 percent more sugar and less water in its composition than US-graded. One grade of syrup not for table use, called commercial or Grade C, was also produced under the Vermont system. [71]

        In Canada, the packing of maple syrup must follow the "Packing" conditions stated in the Maple Products Regulations, or utilize the equivalent Canadian or imported grading system. [65]

        As stated in the Maple Products Regulations, Canadian maple syrup can be classified as "Canadian Grade A" and "Canadian Processing Grade". Any maple syrup container under these classifications should be filled to at least 90% of the bottle size while still containing the net quantity of syrup product as stated on the label. Every container of maple syrup must be new if it has a capacity of 5 litres or less or is marked with a grade name. Every container of maple sugar must also be new if it has a capacity of less than 5 kg or is either exported out of Canada or conveyed from one province to another. [65]

        Each maple syrup product must be verified clean if it follows a grade name or if it is exported out of the province in which it was originally manufactured. [65]

        The basic ingredient in maple syrup is the sap from the xylem of sugar maple or various other species of maple trees. It consists primarily of sucrose and water, with small amounts of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose from the invert sugar created in the boiling process. [79] [80]

        In a 100g amount, maple syrup provides 260 calories and is composed of 32 percent water by weight, 67 percent carbohydrates (90 percent of which are sugars), and no appreciable protein or fat (table). Maple syrup is generally low in overall micronutrient content, although manganese and riboflavin are at high levels along with moderate amounts of zinc and calcium (right table). It also contains trace amounts of amino acids which increase in content as sap flow occurs. [81]

        Maple syrup contains a wide variety of polyphenols and volatile organic compounds, including vanillin, hydroxybutanone, lignans, propionaldehyde, and numerous organic acids. [82] [83] [84] It is not yet known exactly all compounds responsible for the distinctive flavour of maple syrup, [37] although primary flavour-contributing compounds are maple furanone (5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone), strawberry furanone, and maltol. [85] New compounds have been identified in maple syrup, one of which is quebecol, a natural phenolic compound created when the maple sap is boiled to create syrup. [86] Its sweetness derives from a high content of sucrose (99% of total sugars). [80] Its brown colour – a significant factor in the appeal and quality grading of maple syrup – develops during thermal evaporation. [87]

        One author described maple syrup as "a unique ingredient, smooth- and silky-textured, with a sweet, distinctive flavour – hints of caramel with overtones of toffee will not do – and a rare colour, amber set alight. Maple flavour is, well, maple flavour, uniquely different from any other." [53] Agriculture Canada has developed a "flavour wheel" that details 91 unique flavours that can be present in maple syrup. These flavours are divided into 13 families: vanilla, burnt, milky, fruity, floral, spicy, foreign (deterioration or fermentation), foreign (environment), maple, confectionery, plant (herbaceous), plant (forest, humus or cereals), and plant (ligneous). [88] [89] These flavours are evaluated using a procedure similar to wine tasting. [90] Other culinary experts praise its unique flavour. [91] [92] [93] [94]

        Maple syrup and its various artificial imitations are widely used as toppings for pancakes, waffles, and French toast in North America. They can also be used to flavour a variety of foods, including fritters, ice cream, hot cereal, fresh fruit, bacon, and sausages. It is also used as sweetener for granola, applesauce, baked beans, candied sweet potatoes, winter squash, cakes, pies, breads, tea, coffee, and hot toddies. [95]

        In Canada, maple syrup must be made entirely from maple sap, and syrup must have a density of 66° on the Brix scale to be marketed as maple syrup. [36] In the United States, maple syrup must be made almost entirely from maple sap, although small amounts of substances such as salt may be added. [96] Labeling laws prohibit imitation syrups from having "maple" in their names unless the finished product contains 10 percent or more of natural maple syrup. [96]

        "Maple-flavoured" syrups include maple syrup, but may contain additional ingredients. [96] "Pancake syrup", "waffle syrup", "table syrup", and similarly named syrups are substitutes which are less expensive than maple syrup. In these syrups, the primary ingredient is most often high-fructose corn syrup flavoured with sotolon they have little genuine maple content, and are usually thickened above the viscosity of maple syrup. [97]

        Imitation syrups are generally cheaper than maple syrup, with less natural flavour. [97] In the United States, consumers generally prefer imitation syrups, likely because of the significantly lower cost and sweeter flavour [98] [99] they typically cost about $8 per US gallon ($2 per litre), whereas authentic maple syrup costs $40–$60 per US gallon ($11–$16 per litre) as of 2015. [99]

        In 2016, maple syrup producers from nine US states petitioned the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate labeling of products containing maple syrup or using the word "maple" in manufactured products, indicating that imitation maple products contained insignificant amounts of natural maple syrup. [100] In September 2016, the FDA published a consumer advisory to carefully inspect the ingredient list of products labeled as "maple". [101]

        Maple products are considered emblematic of Canada, and are frequently sold in tourist shops and airports as souvenirs from Canada. The sugar maple's leaf has come to symbolize Canada, and is depicted on the country's flag. [102] Several US states, including West Virginia, New York, Vermont, and Wisconsin, have the sugar maple as their state tree. [103] A scene of sap collection is depicted on the Vermont state quarter, issued in 2001. [104]

        Maple syrup and maple sugar were used during the American Civil War and by abolitionists in the years before the war because most cane sugar and molasses were produced by Southern slaves. [98] [105] Because of food rationing during the Second World War, people in the northeastern United States were encouraged to stretch their sugar rations by sweetening foods with maple syrup and maple sugar, [19] and recipe books were printed to help housewives employ this alternative source. [106]


        Our History

        Walmart as we know it today evolved from Sam Walton’s goals for great value and great customer service. “Mr. Sam,” as he was known, believed in leadership through service. This belief that true leadership depends on willing service was the principle on which Walmart was built, and drove the decisions the company has made for the past 50 years. So much of Walmart’s history is tied to the story of Sam Walton himself, and so much of our future will be rooted in Mr. Sam’s principles.

        The Road to Walmart

        Sam Walton was born in 1918 in Kingfisher, Oklahoma. In 1942, at the age of 24, he joined the military. He married Helen Robson in 1943. When his military service ended in 1945, Sam and Helen moved to Iowa and then to Newport, Arkansas. During this time, Sam gained early retail experience, eventually operating his own variety store.

        In 1950, the Waltons left Newport for Bentonville, where Sam opened Walton’s 5&10 on the downtown square. They chose Bentonville because Helen wanted small-town living, and Sam could take advantage of the different hunting seasons that living at the corner of four states had to offer.

        Inspired by the early success of his dime store, and driven to bring even greater opportunity and value to his customers, Sam opened the first Walmart in 1962 at the age of 44 in Rogers, Arkansas.

        Changing the Face of Retail

        Sam's competitors thought his idea that a successful business could be built around offering lower prices and great service would never work. As it turned out, the company's success exceeded even Sam's expectations. The company went public in 1970, and the proceeds financed a steady expansion of the business. Sam credited the rapid growth of Walmart not just to the low costs that attracted his customers, but also to his associates. He relied on them to give customers the great shopping experience that would keep them coming back. Sam shared his vision for the company with associates in a way that was nearly unheard of in the industry. He made them partners in the success of the company, and firmly believed that this partnership was what made Walmart great.

        As the stores grew, so did Sam's aspirations. In addition to bringing new approaches and technologies to retail, he also experimented with new store formats—including Sam's Club and the Walmart Supercenter—and even made the decision to take Walmart into Mexico. Sam's fearlessness in offering lower prices and bringing Walmart's value to customers in the U.S. and beyond set a standard for the company that lives on to this day. His strong commitment to service and to the values that help individuals, businesses and the country succeed earned him the Presidential Medal of Freedom, awarded by President George H. W. Bush in 1992.

        It was during Sam's acceptance remarks that he articulated what would come to be Walmart's official company purpose.

        Today, "saving people money so they can live better" is the driving force behind everything we do.

        10 Rules for Building a Better Business

        Sam Walton believed running a successful business boils down to 10 simple rules and they helped Walmart become the global leader it is today. We continue to apply them to every part of our business. Read his 10 rules for building a better business »

        Mr. Sam's Legacy

        Sam Walton died in 1992, shortly after receiving the Medal of Freedom, but his legacy lives on. To this day, Walmart remains a leader in the retail industry. We are committed not just to expanding the business to better serve our customers, but also to improving the communities we serve through our efforts to constantly improve what we do and how we do it, and through the impacts we're able to achieve through the Walmart Foundation. Through this daily dedication to our business and our customers, we honor Mr. Sam.

        Timeline

        Walmart's history is more than just the stores we've built, the partnerships we've made and the customers we've served. So much of our history is in the details. See how Walmart began, how we’ve grown and how our leadership has changed the retail industry.


        Facebook

        I want to express to each of you my deep gratitude for helping to create an unprecedented grassroots political campaign that has had a profound impact in changing our nation.

        I want to thank the hundreds of thousands of volunteers who knocked on millions of doors in the freezing winters of Iowa and New Hampshire and in the heat of Nevada and South Carolina – and in states throughout the country.

        I want to thank the 2.1 million Americans who have contributed to our campaign and showed the world that we can take on a corrupt campaign finance system and run a major presidential campaign without being dependent upon the wealthy and the powerful. Thank you for your 10 million contributions – averaging $18.50 per donation.

        I want to thank those who phone banked for our campaign and those of you who came together to send out millions of texts. I want to thank the many hundreds of thousands of Americans who attended our rallies, town meetings and house parties from New York to Los Angeles. Some of these events had over 25,000 people. Some had a few hundred and some had a dozen. But all were important. Let me thank those who made these many events possible.

        I want to thank our surrogates, too many to name. I can't imagine that any candidate has ever been blessed with a stronger and more dedicated group of people who have taken our message to every corner of the country. And I want to thank all those who made music and art an integral part of our campaign.

        I want to thank all of you who spoke to your friends and neighbors, posted on social media and worked as hard as you could to make this a better country.

        Together, we have transformed American consciousness as to what kind of country we can become, and have taken this country a major step forward in the never-ending struggle for economic justice, social justice, racial justice and environmental justice.

        I also want to thank the many hundreds of people on our campaign staff. You were willing to move from one state to another and do all the work that had to be done – no job was too big or too small for you. You rolled up your sleeves and you did it. You embodied the words that are at the core of our movement: Not me, us. And I thank each and every one of you.

        WE HAVE WON THE IDEOLOGICAL BATTLE

        As many of you will recall Nelson Mandela, one of the great freedom fighters in modern world history, famously said "It always seems impossible until it is done." And what he meant by that is that the greatest obstacle to real social change has everything to do with the power of the corporate and political establishment to limit our vision as to what is possible and what we are entitled to as human beings.

        If we don't believe that we are entitled to health care as a human right, we will never achieve universal health care.

        If we don't believe that we are entitled to decent wages and working conditions, millions of us will continue to live in poverty.

        If we don't believe that we are entitled to all of the education we require to fulfill our dreams, many of us will leave school saddled with huge debt, or never get the education we need.

        If we don't believe that we are entitled to live in a world that has a clean environment and is not ravaged by climate change, we will continue to see more drought, floods, rising sea levels and an increasingly uninhabitable planet.

        If we don't believe that we are entitled to live in a world of justice, democracy and fairness – without racism, sexism, homophobia, xenophobia or religious bigotry – we will continue to have massive income and wealth inequality, prejudice and hatred, mass incarceration, terrified immigrants and hundreds of thousands of Americans sleeping out on the streets of the richest country on earth.

        Focusing on that new vision for America is what our campaign has been about and what, in fact, we have accomplished. Few would deny that over the course of the past 5 years our movement has won the ideological struggle. In so called "red" states, and "blue" states and "purple" states, a majority of the American people now understand that we must raise the minimum wage to at least $15 an hour that we must guarantee health care as a right to all of our people that we must transform our energy system away from fossil fuel, and that higher education must be available to all, regardless of income.

        It was not long ago that people considered these ideas radical and fringe. Today, they are mainstream ideas – and many of them are already being implemented in cities and states across the country. That's what you accomplished.

        In terms of health care, even before the horrific pandemic we are now experiencing, more and more Americans understood that we must move to a Medicare for All, single-payer system. During the primary elections exit polls showed, in state after state, a strong majority of Democratic primary voters supported a single government health insurance program to replace private insurance. That was true even in states where our campaign did not prevail.

        And let me just say this: In terms of health care, this horrific crisis that we are now in has exposed how absurd our current employer-based health insurance system is. The current economic downturn we are experiencing has not only led to a massive loss of jobs, but has also resulted in millions of Americans losing their health insurance. While Americans have been told, over and over again, how wonderful our employer-based, private insurance system is, those claims sound very hollow now as a growing number of unemployed workers struggle with how they can afford to go to the doctor, or not go bankrupt with a huge hospital bill. We have always believed that health care must be considered as a human right, not an employee benefit – and we are right.

        Please also appreciate that not only are we winning the struggle ideologically, we are also winning it generationally. The future of our country rests with young people and, in state after state, whether we won or whether we lost the Democratic primaries or caucuses, we received a significant majority of the votes, sometimes an overwhelming majority, from people not only 30 or under, but 50 years of age or younger. In other words, the future of this country is with our ideas.

        As we are all painfully aware, we now face an unprecedented crisis. Not only are we dealing with the coronavirus pandemic, which has taken the lives of many thousands of our people, we are also dealing with an economic meltdown that has resulted in the loss of millions of jobs.

        Today, families all across the country face financial hardship unimaginable only a few months ago. And because of the unacceptable levels of income and wealth distribution in our economy, many of our friends and neighbors have little or no savings and are desperately trying to pay their rent or their mortgage or even to put food on the table. This reality makes it clear to me that Congress must address this unprecedented crisis in an unprecedented way that protects the health and economic wellbeing of the working families of our country, not just powerful special interests. As a member of the Democratic leadership in the United States Senate, and as a senator from Vermont, this is something that I intend to be intensely involved in, and which will require an enormous amount of work.

        That takes me to the state of our presidential campaign. I wish I could give you better news, but I think you know the truth. And that is that we are now some 300 delegates behind Vice President Biden, and the path toward victory is virtually impossible. So while we are winning the ideological battle, and while we are winning the support of young people and working people throughout the country, I have concluded that this battle for the Democratic nomination will not be successful.

        And so today I am announcing the suspension of active campaigning, and congratulate Joe Biden, a very decent man, on his victory.

        Please know that I do not make this decision lightly. In fact, it has been a very painful decision. Over the past few weeks Jane and I, in consultation with top staff and many of our prominent supporters, have made an honest assessment of the prospects for victory. If I believed we had a feasible path to the nomination I would certainly continue the campaign. But it's not there.

        I know there may be some in our movement who disagree with this decision, who would like us to fight on to the last ballot cast at the Democratic convention. I understand that position. But as I see the crisis gripping the nation – exacerbated by a president unwilling or unable to provide any kind of credible leadership – and the work that needs to be done to protect people in this most desperate hour, I cannot in good conscience continue to mount a campaign that cannot win and which would interfere with the important work required of all of us in this difficult hour.

        But let me say this very emphatically: As you all know, we have never been just a campaign. We are a grassroots multi-racial, multi-generational movement which has always believed that real change never comes from the top on down, but always from the bottom on up. We have taken on Wall Street, the insurance companies, the drug companies, the fossil fuel industry, the military industrial complex, the prison industrial complex and the greed of the entire corporate elite. That struggle continues. While this campaign is coming to an end, our movement is not.

        Martin Luther King, Jr. reminded us that "The arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice." The fight for justice is what our campaign was about. The fight for justice is what our movement remains about.

        And, on a practical note, let me also say this: I will stay on the ballot in all remaining states and continue to gather delegates. While Vice President Biden will be the nominee, we should still work to assemble as many delegates as possible at the Democratic convention where we will be able to exert significant influence over the party platform and other functions.

        Then, together, standing united, we will go forward to defeat Donald Trump, the most dangerous president in modern American history. And we will fight to elect strong progressives at every level of government – from Congress to the school board.

        As I hope all of you know, this race has never been about me. I ran for the presidency because I believed as president I could accelerate and institutionalize the progressive change that we are all building together. And, if we keep organizing and fighting, I have no doubt that our victory is inevitable. While the path may be slower now, we WILL change this country and, with like-minded friends around the globe, the entire world.

        On a very personal note, speaking for Jane, myself and our entire family, we will always carry in our hearts the memory of the extraordinary people we have met across the country. We often hear about the beauty of America. And this is an incredibly beautiful country.

        But to me the beauty I will remember most is in the faces of the people we have met from one corner of this country to the other. The compassion, love and decency I saw in them makes me so hopeful for our future. It also makes me more determined than ever to work to create a country that reflects those values and lifts up all our people.

        Please stay in this fight with me. Let us go forward together. The struggle continues.


        Q: What are the differences between the previous generations of mobile networks and 5G?

        A: The previous generations of mobile networks are 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G.

        First generation - 1G
        1980s: 1G delivered analog voice.

        Second generation - 2G
        Early 1990s: 2G introduced digital voice (e.g. CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access).

        Third generation - 3G
        Early 2000s: 3G brought mobile data (e.g. CDMA2000).

        Fourth generation - 4G LTE
        2010s: 4G LTE ushered in the era of mobile broadband.

        1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G all led to 5G, which is designed to provide more connectivity than was ever available before.

        5G is a unified, more capable air interface. It has been designed with an extended capacity to enable next-generation user experiences, empower new deployment models and deliver new services.

        With high speeds, superior reliability and negligible latency, 5G will expand the mobile ecosystem into new realms. 5G will impact every industry, making safer transportation, remote healthcare, precision agriculture, digitized logistics — and more — a reality.

        Q: How is 5G better than 4G?

        A: There are several reasons that 5G will be better than 4G:

        • 5G is significantly faster than 4G
        • 5G has more capacity than 4G
        • 5G has significantly lower latency than 4G
        • 5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G
        • 5G uses spectrum better than 4G

        5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G.
        While 4G LTE focused on delivering much faster mobile broadband services than 3G, 5G is designed to be a unified, more capable platform that not only elevates mobile broadband experiences, but also supports new services such as mission-critical communications and the massive IoT. 5G can also natively support all spectrum types (licensed, shared, unlicensed) and bands (low, mid, high), a wide range of deployment models (from traditional macro-cells to hotspots), and new ways to interconnect (such as device-to-device and multi-hop mesh).

        5G uses spectrum better than 4G.
        5G is also designed to get the most out of every bit of spectrum across a wide array of available spectrum regulatory paradigms and bands—from low bands below 1 GHz, to mid bands from 1 GHz to 6 GHz, to high bands known as millimeter wave (mmWave).

        5G is faster than 4G.
        5G can be significantly faster than 4G, delivering up to 20 Gigabits-per-second (Gbps) peak data rates and 100+ Megabits-per-second (Mbps) average data rates.

        5G has more capacity than 4G.
        5G is designed to support a 100x increase in traffic capacity and network efficiency. 1

        5G has lower latency than 4G.
        5G has significantly lower latency to deliver more instantaneous, real-time access: a 10x decrease in end-to-end latency down to 1ms. 1


        Contents

        The English forests of hardwood and conifer had been all but decimated by the thirteenth century. Beginning in the 1540s, further exploitation of its remaining forests ensued as British factories began consuming vast amounts of wood to fuel its iron industry. In an attempt to preserve its dwindling resource, parliament passed Act for the Preservation of Woods in 1543, limiting further felling of timber to 440 yards from landed property. However, the seventeenth century even the tracts that had been reserved for the Crown had been depleted. As a result, the price of firewood doubled between 1540 and 1570, leaving the poorest literally freezing to death. [1] [4]

        In 1584 Richard Hakluyt, archdeacon of London's Westminster Abbey and preeminent geographer in Europe, published a manuscript titled A Discourse of Western Planting, in which he advocated the colonization of North America for the “employmente of numbers of idle men” to extract its natural resources for exportation to England. Among the commodities listed as marketable goods was trees. It was Hakluyt's belief that North America and its endless stock of resources would solve the nation's dilemma. Hakluyt projected that an established lumber industry would deliver returns that would in itself justify investment in settling the area that was becoming commonly known by several names including Norumbega, Acadia, Virginia or New England. [5]

        Hakluyt and seven other men formed a joint stock company aptly named the Virginia Company, and on April 10, 1606 received the First Charter of Virginia from King James I. The charter split the company into two separate groups, a London-based group known as the London Company (of which Hakluyt was a member) and a Plymouth-based group known as the Plymouth Company. The charter decreed the right upon both companies to “make habitation, plantation, and to deduce a colony of sundry of our people into that part of America commonly called Virginia” between the thirty-fourth and forty-fifth degrees of north latitude. [6] On December 20, 1606 one hundred men and four boys boarded the ships Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery and set sail down the Thames under Captain Christopher Newport. [7]

        On April 10, they entered the “Chesupioc” Bay and landed alongside “faire meddowes and goodly tall trees.” [8] Finally on April 26, 1607, the London Company reached Virginia, and declared their settlement Jamestown in honor of the King. [9] Almost immediately the London Company began sending shipments of trees back to England. A letter written in 1608 expressing the abundant discovery of good trees for export read, “I heare not of any novelties or other commodities she hath brought more then sweet woode.” However, exportation of any scale was delayed. During the winter of 1609, 154 of the original 214 colonists perished. The event would be remembered as the Starving Time, and it would be another eleven years before timber production of any consequence would resume in New England. [10]

        In 1621 pressure from Plymouth Company's financiers impelled the colonists to ship to England a load of their commodities upon the vessel Fortune “laden with good clapboard as full as she could stowe.” However, it wasn't long before the pilgrims realized that their wood supply was too precious a resource to export, and promptly restricted overseas sales in a colony-wide decree:

        “That for the preventing of such inconveniences as do and may befall the plantation by the want of timber, That no man of what condition soever sell or transport any manner of works…[that] may tend to the destruction of timber…without the consent approbation and liking of the Governor and councile.” [11]

        By the 1680s, over two dozen sawmills were operating in southern Maine. [12]

        Early housing Edit

        Homes serve as a stabilizer for settlements attempting to establish permanent residence. [13] Therefore, upon the establishment of Jamestown, the London Company quickly set about constructing a fortification for protection from hostile natives. By mid-June 1607 the company had finished constructing its fort, triangular in shape, enclosing about one acre, with its river side extending 420 feet and its other sides measuring 300 feet. Within the fort the company built a church, storehouse, living quarters - all the amenities the colony would need to survive. Between February and May 1609, improvements were made to the colony twenty cabins were built, and by 1614 Jamestown consisted of, “two faire rowes of howses, all of framed timber, two stories, and an upper garret or corne loft high, besides three large, and substantial storehowses joined together in length some hundred and twenty foot, and in breadth forty….” Without the town”. in the Island [were] some very pleasant, and beautiful howses, two blockhowses. and certain other framed howses.” [14]

        Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Patuxet Indians had been shaping the forests for thousands of years. Where natural clearings already didn’t exist, the Patuxet systematically burned and felled tracts of forest for growing corn and constructing their dwellings. Many of the original colonial settlements would later be located on such sites, including Plymouth, Boston, Salem, Medford, and Watertown. [15] However, by the mid-1630s the original treeless outcroppings became overpopulated and could no longer support additional settlement. As a wave of new immigration arrived, settlers were forced into the woods to make their property claims.

        One colonist explained the process of constructing a rudimentary shelter, whereby an individual would, “dig a square pit in the ground, cellar fashion, 6 or 7 feet deep, as long and as broad as they think proper, case the earth inside with wood all around the wall, and line the wood with the bark of trees or something else to prevent the caving in of the earth floor this cellar with plank and wainscot it overhead for a ceiling, raise a roof of spars clear up and cover the spars with bark and green sods." [16]

        As commodities, tools and building supplies steadily flowed into Virginia, home construction advanced, producing sturdy foundations upon which hewn timbers were erected, the exterior covered with clapboard, and the interior coated with wainscoting. By 1612, clay was being dredged from the James and Chickahominy Rivers. Bricks were fired and constructed into chimneys, as well as homes for the more affluent. However, necessity required clearing the land of timber resulting in an abundance of optimal material for building wood frame houses.

        Regarding the architecture of the typical seventeenth century home, the structures were on average one-story structures with a loft accessible via a ladder-like stairway. There were often chimneys at both ends of the home, where meals typically were prepared upon an open hearth. The houses averaged between thirty and forty feet in length, and between eighteen and twenty feet in width. [17] [18]

        Commercial markets Edit

        In the 1600s virtually no commercial trade existed between Britain and New England. In fact, it would take nearly fifty years for the Admiralty to personally send mast ships and recruit colonials willing to produce timber for British stores. However, wood became a material used in abundance for everyday items. Hickory, ash, and hornbeam were used to craft bowls and tools. Cedar and black walnut were used for their ornate properties and crafted into decorative boxes, furniture and ceremonial gunstocks. And sweet sap was extracted from maple, rivaling honey as the colony's premier source of sweetener. [19] [20]

        Britain's Navigation Acts prevented New England from trading its valuable commodities with other European nations. However, timber was excluded from the Navigation Acts allowing the colonies to export vast quantities of wood commodities to nations otherwise beholden to British duties. Oak staves for wine barrels, along with building timber, white pine boards, and cedars shingles were traded to Spain, Portugal, the Canary Islands, the Azores, and Madeira. In addition, inter-colonial trade was unrestricted, allowing for the development of a major trade relationship with British Barbados.

        Having long since dropped all other crops in favor of sugar production, and thoroughly stripped their islands of timber, Barbados and later other Caribbean islands became virtually dependent upon timber imports from New England. A letter from Barbadian representatives to the British Parliament in 1673 illustrated the necessity to which they relied upon New England timber. Lumber was required to maintain their buildings, staves and heading of porous red oak were in need for transporting sugar and molasses casks - even production resources were in demand to ensure economies of scale. By 1652 New England had established robust overseas markets shipping lumber, seafaring vessels, and fishing goods. [21] [22]

        Maritime markets Edit

        On April 27, 1607, one day after the London Company reached the Chesapeake, a group of colonists built a small boat and launched it the following day. [23] By the 1600s, nearly all commerce was waterborne, and in Virginia the shallop was the most popular boat for use in the colony. Due to its relatively small size (16–20 feet in length) it was perfectly suited for exploring rivers and creeks, as well as for trading and transporting tobacco to ships. [24] [25]

        Shortly after its inception, shipbuilding in the Virginia colony was a very simple operation carried out by plantation owners. A suitable location along the bank of a stream with water deep enough to float a vessel was essential. Likewise, access to suitable timber and the means to transport the materials were crucial. However, boatbuilding stagnated and shipbuilding failed to develop in those early years. Furthermore, the few boatwrights inhabiting the colony perished in the great Indian massacre of 1622. [26] [27]

        By 1629 the respective companies’ financiers had become increasingly concerned upon failures to realize returns on their investment. As a result, the New England Company (a reorganized version of the Plymouth Company) along with the directors of the Massachusetts Company sent their own shipwrights to jump-start domestic shipbuilding. Accordingly, shipbuilding in the early 1630s suddenly came to life along the banks of Boston and Charlestown. The region appeared as though it were designed for building ships.

        White oaks provided excellent ship timber and planking. Cedars, chestnuts, and black oaks were perfect for the underwater portion of the ships – due to their impermeability to liquids, shock resistance, strength, natural durability, and decay-resistant properties among others. [19] [28] [29] Within a decade boats and ships proliferated.

        In A Perfect Description of Virginia, an unnamed author wrote that the colony was swarming with “pinnaces, barks, great and small boats many hundreds, for most of their plantations stand upon the rivers’ sides and up little creeks and but a small way into the land.” [30] In 1662 the General Assembly of Virginia sought further to encourage shipbuilding by enacting a series of incentivizing laws which declared:

        “Be it enacted that every one that shall build a small vessel with a deck be allowed, if above twenty and under fifty tons, fifty pounds of tobacco per ton if above fifty and under one hundred tons, two hundred pounds of tobacco per ton if above one hundred tons, two hundred pounds per ton. Provided the vessel is not sold except to an inhabitant of this country in three years.”

        Builders were also incentivized by receiving two shilling exemptions off export duties per hogshead of tobacco, as well as exemption from castle duties, two pence reduction per gallon on imported liquor, and exemption from duties traditionally imposed on shipmasters upon entering and clearing. Furthermore, throughout the duration of the royal government there would be various laws remitting the duties on imports received on native ships, remission of tonnage duties, and exemptions for licensing and bond where applicable. [31]

        The size of vessels in Virginia had steadily been increasing as well, and the craftsmanship had been improving, such that in a letter to Lord Arlington, Secretary of the Colony Thomas Ludwell boasted: “We have built several vessels to trade with our neighbors, and do hope ere long to build bigger ships and such as may trade with England.” Such was the astonishment at how quickly New England's shipbuilding had rapidly progressed that an article was submitted in the English News Letter of March 12, 1666 describing “A frigate of between thirty and forty [tons?], built in Virginia, looks so fair, it is believed that in short time, they will get the art of shipbuilding as good frigates as there are in England”. [32] As early as 1690 Dr. Lyon G. Tyler in The Cradle of the Republic wrote that ships of 300 tons were built in Virginia and trade in the West Indies was conducted in small sloops. [33]

        Regardless of the increase in timber production, the commodity was not as profitable as Richard Hakluyt had hoped. The cause was due in part to the higher wages paid by freeholders compared to their serf counterparts in Europe, as well as the cost of transatlantic shipping. While Boston ports charged forty to fifty shillings, the Baltic ports only charged nine. [34]

        That changed when England awoke to a timber crisis after commercial competition with the Dutch came to a breaking point. The Navigation Acts of 1651 had greatly limited imports into England, prompting Denmark to prey upon British ships as they sailed to and from the Baltic Sea transporting their timber cargo. It was at this time, on the eve of the first Anglo-Dutch War (1652–1654) that the Admiralty considered a plan to develop a North American source of timber and masts, and forgo possible crisis as a result of impending lengthy repair of battle-shattered masts. [26]

        North European fir had been the Admiralty's timber of choice for its mast construction. However, finding its supply chain obstructed, the Admiralty's second choice was the North American white pine. A shipload had been received from Jamestown in 1609 and another in 1634 from Penobscot Bay, both of which were found to be agreeable . [35] There is disagreement amongst scholars about which variety was the strongest, however the North American white pine was considered more resilient, one fourth lighter in weight, and exponentially larger reaching a height of 250 feet, several feet in diameter at the base, and weighing in as much as 15 to 20 tons. [36] Accordingly, the Admiralty sent a fleet of mast ships in 1652 and thus began Britain's steady importation New England masts . [19]

        Following the development of New England's shipbuilding industry, it became common for the British to retail New England ships due to significantly lower production costs. The abundance of naval stores and good timber enabled colonists to produce ships thirty percent cheaper than the English, making it the most profitable manufactured export during the colonial period. [37]

        The Admiralty's venture to get mast logs out of the New England forest, in turn, produced a labor force that with it developed into a booming domestic lumber industry. Since ninety-plus percent of New England pines harvested were unsuitable for masts, an important building and commodities lumber market emerged converting rejected masts into merchantable boards, joists and other structural lumber. Such was the success of the colonial entrepreneurs that the Crown became concerned that its newfound resource of dependable naval stores and masts would quickly dwindle.

        In response, King William III enacted a new charter in October 1691 governing the Massachusetts Bay Colony, reserving for the King “all Trees of the Diameter of Twenty Four Inches and upwards” that were not previously granted to private persons. [38] [39] The portion of the charter quickly became known as the King's Broad Arrow. All timber consigned under the charter were marked with three strikes of an ax resembling an upside down arrow. The importance of the policy only increased with the onset of The Great Northern War (1700–1721), which all but halted Baltic exports to England. Consequently, British Parliament began passing a series of acts regulating imports from the Baltic and promoting imports from New England. [40]

        The Act of 1704 encouraged the import of naval stores form New England, offering £4 per ton of tar or pitch, £3 per ton of resin of turpentine, and £1 per ton of masts and bowsprits (40 cubic feet). The Act of 1705 forbade the cutting of unfenced or small pitch pine and tar trees with a diameter less than twelve inches. The Act of 1711 gave the Survey General of the King's Forests authority over all colonies from New Jersey to Maine. Lastly, the Act of 1721 extended dominion of the King's Forests to any trees not found within a township or its boundaries, and officially recognized the American word ‘lumber’ for the first time. [40]

        However, the acts and policy proved virtually impossible to enforce. A survey in 1700 documented more than fifteen thousand logs that violated the twenty-four inch restriction. [40] Attempts to curb illegal lumbering continued under the appointment of John Bridger as survey general in 1705. His task was to survey and protect His Majesty's Woods, duties of which he performed with great enthusiasm. Bridger conducted extensive mast surveys, confiscated illegal timber, and prosecuted violators, to no avail. Colonists didn't care, and often disregarded the Broad Arrow mark. It became virtually impossible for a single surveyor with a few deputies to police the entire expanse of New England's forests. After much pleading on behalf of Bridger for more resources and authority, the Parliamentary Acts (1704–1729) slowly eased the burden of his charge. Ironically, in 1718 Bridger was removed for corruption and his predecessor Colonel David Dunbar, treated the post with indifference. [41] [42]

        The effects of the policy on the American economy remains unclear. Without the Admiralty's quest for choice timber the American lumber industry may not have developed as quickly. Certainly, the policy ensured a steady reliable source of mast timber during England's ascension to naval dominance, but at a price. Perceived violations of property rights on New England colonists served only to stoke the embers of rebellion. Shipments of New England timber continued unabated until the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. The last supply of New England masts reached the home country on July 31, 1775 after more than 4500 white pines had been sent under the Broad Arrow policy. [43] [44]

        The American industrial revolution caused the national demand for timber to spike. Prior to the Civil War, more than ninety percent of the nation's energy came from wood, fueling the great transportation vehicles of the era. [12] As Americans settled the timber-starved Great Plains, they needed material from the lumber-rich parts of the nation with which to build their cities. The burgeoning railroad industry accounted for a fourth of the national lumber demand and required the product to build rail cars and stations, fashion ties, and power trains. [12] Even as the coal began to replace wood as an energy source, the coal mining industry itself needed lumber to support its mining structures and create its own rail beds. Technological development helped the industry meet the soaring demand. New methods of transporting lumber, like the steam engine, provided the means to log further inland and away from water. New machines such as the circular saw and the band saw allowed forests to be felled with significantly improved efficiency. [45] The resulting increased timber production saw New England forests become rapidly depleted, and American loggers began methodically cutting their way south and west in search of new forests.

        United States
        Lumber Production [46]
        Year Annual Production
        (millions of board feet)
        1850 5,000
        1860 8,000
        1870 13,000
        1880 18,000
        1890 23,500
        1900 35,000

        By the 1790s, New England was exporting 36 million feet of pine boards and 300 ship masts annually, with over 75 percent coming from Massachusetts (which included Maine) and another 20 percent coming from New Hampshire. [2] By 1830, Bangor, Maine had become the world's largest lumber shipping port and would move over 8.7 billion board feet of timber over the following sixty years. [3] Throughout the 19th century, Americans headed west in search of new land and natural resources. The timber supply in the Midwest was dwindling, forcing loggers to seek new sources of “green gold.” In the early decades of the 19th century, the Great Lakes and their tributary waterways flowed through areas densely covered with virgin timber. The timber became a primary resource for both regional and national building materials, industry, and fuel. [47] [48] [49]

        By 1840, upstate New York and Pennsylvania formed the seat of the industry. By 1880 the Great Lakes region dominated logging, with Michigan producing more lumber than any other state. [12]

        By 1900, with timber supplies in the upper Midwest already dwindling, American loggers looked further west to the Pacific Northwest. The shift west was sudden and precipitous: in 1899, Idaho produced 65 million board feet of lumber in 1910, it produced 745 million. [50] By 1920, the Pacific Northwest was producing 30 percent of the nation's lumber. [51]

        Whereas previously individuals or families were managing single sawmills and selling the lumber to wholesalers, towards the end of the nineteenth century this industry structure began to give way to large industrialists who owned multiple mills and purchased their own timberlands. [12] None was bigger than Frederick Weyerhauser and his company, which started in 1860 in Rock Island, Illinois and expanded to Washington and Oregon. By the time he died in 1914, his company owned over 2 million acres of pine forest. [52]

        Following the onset of the Great Depression, many companies were forced to shut down. Total production of lumber fell at a devastating rate, from 35 billion board feet in 1920 to 10 billion board feet in 1932. Moreover, the steady decline of gross income, net profits, and increased consumption of cement and steel products, exacerbated the decline of lumber production. [53]

        United States
        Gross Income, Net Profits, Production, and price index in the Lumber Industry 1920 -1934 [54]
        Year Gross Income
        (In Millions Dollar)
        Net Profit
        (In Millions Dollar)
        Production
        (In Board feet)
        (In Millions)
        Wholesale Price Index
        (1926=100)
        1920 3,312 N/A 35,000 N/A
        1922 2,402 167 35,250 N/A
        1924 2,835 132 39,500 99.3
        1926 3,069 117 39,750 100.0
        1928 2,342 82 36,750 90.5
        1930 1,988 110 26,100 85.8
        1932 854 202 10,100 58.5
        1934 N/A N/A 12,827 84.5

        In 1933, following the election and first term of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) was passed. President Roosevelt believed that unrestrained competition was one of the root causes of the Great Depression. According to The Effect of the N.R.A. Lumber Code on Forest Policy, national lumber codes regulated various aspects of the industry, including wages, hours, and price. [55]

        The industry was suffering on many fronts. It was incurring low prices for its products, low wages for its workers, and facing exhausted tracts of forest caused previously by overproduction in the late 1920s. [55] As illustrated in table 2, prices rebounded in 1934. Note that it is not only because of Lumber code but also comprehensive impact of devaluation, amplified public work spending, and improved banking system. [56]

        As old-growth forest disappeared rapidly, the United States' timber resources ceased to appear limitless. Canadian lumberman James Little remarked in 1876 that the rate at which the Great Lakes forests were being logged was "not only burning the candle at both ends, but cutting it in two, and setting the match to the four ends to enable them to double the process of exhaustion." [57]

        To deal with the increasingly limited availability of timber resources, the Division of Forestry was established in 1885, and in 1891 the Forest Reserve Act passed, setting aside large tracts of forest as federal land. Loggers were forced to make already cut lands productive again, and the reforesting of timberlands became integral to the industry. Some loggers pushed further northwest to Alaskan forests, but by the 1960s most of the remaining uncut forest became protected. [12]

        The portable chain saw and other technological developments helped drive more efficient logging, but the proliferation of other building materials in the twentieth century saw the end of the rapidly rising demand of the previous century. In 1950, the United States produced 38 billion board feet of lumber, and that number remained fairly constant throughout the decades moving forward, with the national production at 32.9 billion board feet in 1960 and 34.7 billion board feet in 1970. [58]

        Presently there is a healthy lumber economy in the United States, directly employing about 500,000 people in three industries: Logging, Sawmill, and Panel. [59] Annual production in the U.S. is more than 30 billion board feet making the U.S. the largest producer and consumer of lumber. [59] Despite advances in technology and safety awareness, the lumber industry remains one of the most hazardous industries in the world.

        While challenges in today's market exist, the United States remains the second largest exporter of wood in the world. Its primary markets are Japan, Mexico, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Due to higher labor costs in the United States, it is common practice for raw materials to be exported, converted into finished goods and imported back into the United States. [59] For this reason, more raw goods including logs and pulpwood chip are exported than imported in the United States, while finished goods like lumber, plywood and veneer, and panel products have higher imports than exports in the U.S. [60]

        Recently there has been a resurgence in logging towns in the United States. This has been due in large part to the housing recovery. [61] Lumber futures hit all-time highs during the COVID-19 pandemic's building boom. [62]


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